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Exponential or power distance-decay for commuting? An alternative specification

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  • Jacob J De Vries
  • Peter Nijkamp
  • Piet Rietveld

Abstract

In this paper we investigate the functional form of distance decay for commuting flows between municipalities in Denmark. Our inference is based on a single equation that includes variables to capture the effect of spatial structure. Special attention is given to a proper estimation method: we estimate the distance-decay parameters by nonlinear weighted least-squares with balancing factors. It appears that neither an exponential nor a power distance-decay function fits the data well. Using a spline regression we find a cost elasticity of -4 for distances around 20 km and a much smaller value for shorter and longer distances. It appears that the logarithm of distance decay can be described adequately as a (downward) logistic function of log cost.

Suggested Citation

  • Jacob J De Vries & Peter Nijkamp & Piet Rietveld, 2009. "Exponential or power distance-decay for commuting? An alternative specification," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 41(2), pages 461-480, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:pio:envira:v:41:y:2009:i:2:p:461-480
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    Cited by:

    1. Tobias Scholl & Thomas Brenner, 2013. "Detecting Spatial Clustering Using a Firm-Level Index," Working Papers on Innovation and Space 2012-02, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
    2. Aura Reggiani & Pietro Bucci & Giovanni Russo, 2011. "Accessibility and Network Structures in the German Commuting," Networks and Spatial Economics, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 621-641, December.
    3. Matthias Duschl & Tobias Scholl & Thomas Brenner & Dennis Luxen & Falk Raschke, 2015. "Industry-Specific Firm Growth and Agglomeration," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(11), pages 1822-1839, November.
    4. Katarzyna Kopczewska, 2011. "Roads as Channel of Centrifugal Policy Transfer. Spatial Interactions Model Revised," ERSA conference papers ersa11p720, European Regional Science Association.
    5. M. Alonso & M. Beamonte & P. Gargallo & M. Salvador, 2014. "Labour and residential accessibility: a Bayesian analysis based on Poisson gravity models with spatial effects," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 409-439, October.
    6. Duschl, Matthias & Schimke, Antje & Brenner, Thomas & Luxen, Dennis, 2011. "Firm growth and the spatial impact of geolocated external factors: Empirical evidence for German manufacturing firms," Working Paper Series in Economics 36, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Department of Economics and Business Engineering.
    7. Moises Lenyn Obaco Alvarez & Vicente Royuela & Xavier Vítores, 2016. "Computing functional urban areas using a hierarchical travel time approach," ERSA conference papers ersa16p238, European Regional Science Association.
    8. Floriana Gargiulo & Maxime Lenormand & Sylvie Huet & Omar Baqueiro Espinosa, 2012. "Commuting Network Models: Getting the Essentials," Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, vol. 15(2), pages 1-6.
    9. John Östh & Aura Reggiani & Giacomo Galiazzo, 2014. "Novel methods for the estimation of cost–distance decay in potential accessibility models," Chapters,in: Accessibility and Spatial Interaction, chapter 2, pages 15-37 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    10. Karst T. Geurs & Kevin J. Krizek & Aura Reggiani, 2012. "Accessibility analysis and transport planning: an introduction," Chapters,in: Accessibility Analysis and Transport Planning, chapter 1, pages 1-12 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. Chakraborty, A. & Beamonte, M.A. & Gelfand, A.E. & Alonso, M.P. & Gargallo, P. & Salvador, M., 2013. "Spatial interaction models with individual-level data for explaining labor flows and developing local labor markets," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 292-307.
    12. Matthias Duschl & Antje Schimke & Thomas Brenner & Dennis Luxen, 2011. "Firm Growth and the Spatial Impact of Geolocated External Factors – Empirical Evidence for German Manufacturing Firms," Working Papers on Innovation and Space 2011-03, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C21 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • R15 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Econometric and Input-Output Models; Other Methods
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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