IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

ICT and substitution between out-of-home and at-home work: the importance of timing


  • Thomas de Graaff
  • Piet Rietveld


This paper investigates the determinants of at-home and out-of-home labor supply in the Netherlands in the 1990s, focusing on the presence of information and computer technology (ICT) in households -- in particular modem possession. To investigate these determinants, a sequential hurdle model is estimated in which people first decide to work and then decide to divide total labor supply in at-home and out-of-home labor supply. To correct for possible endogeneity, the modem variable is estimated by means of instrumental variables. When we consider only office hours, possession of ICT facilities at home stimulates both at-home and out-of-home labor supply. Thus, the two may be called complements from the ICT perspective. However, outside office hours, modem possession leads to less work out of home. During this part of the day the time worked less on the job is partly substituted by work at home. Thus, during this part of the week we find that substitution dominates. However, because labor supply during office hours dominates labor supply during the rest of the week we find complementarity as the main feature of overall labor supply. These results underline the importance of timing issues.

Suggested Citation

  • Thomas de Graaff & Piet Rietveld, 2004. "ICT and substitution between out-of-home and at-home work: the importance of timing," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 36(5), pages 879-896, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:pio:envira:v:36:y:2004:i:5:p:879-896

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: abstract
    Download Restriction: Fulltext access restricted to subscribers, see for details

    File URL:
    File Function: main text
    Download Restriction: Fulltext access restricted to subscribers, see for details

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. P L Mokhtarian & I Salomon, 1996. "Modeling the choice of telecommuting: 2. A case of the preferred impossible alternative," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 28(10), pages 1859-1876, October.
    2. Cragg, John G, 1971. "Some Statistical Models for Limited Dependent Variables with Application to the Demand for Durable Goods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(5), pages 829-844, September.
    3. Toshiyuki Yamamoto & Ryuichi Kitamura, 1999. "An analysis of time allocation to in-home and out-of-home discretionary activities across working days and non- working days," Transportation, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 231-250, May.
    4. Hjorthol, Randi Johanne, 2002. "The relation between daily travel and use of the home computer," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 437-452, June.
    5. Blundell, Richard & Meghir, Costas, 1987. "Bivariate alternatives to the Tobit model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1-2), pages 179-200.
    6. Maki, Atsushi & Nishiyama, Shigeru, 1996. "An analysis of under-reporting for micro-data sets: The misreporting or double-hurdle model," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 211-220, September.
    7. Blundell, Richard & Ham, John & Meghir, Costas, 1987. "Unemployment and Female Labour Supply," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(388a), pages 44-64, Supplemen.
    8. Jin-Ru Yen, 2000. "Interpreting employee telecommuting adoption: An economics perspective," Transportation, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 149-164, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Miruna Sarbu, 2015. "Determinants of Work-at-Home Arrangements for German Employees," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 29(4), pages 444-469, December.
    2. de Graaff, Thomas & Rietveld, Piet, 2007. "Substitution between working at home and out-of-home: The role of ICT and commuting costs," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 142-160, February.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pio:envira:v:36:y:2004:i:5:p:879-896. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Neil Hammond). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.