Telecommuting, residential location, and commute-distance traveled: evidence from State of California employees
This study analyzes retrospective data on telecommuting and residential and job location changes over a ten-year period, from 218 employees (62 current telecommuters, 35 former telecommuters, and 121 people who had never telecommuted) of six California state government agencies which had actively participated in the well-known pilot program of 1988 - 90. We compare estimates of the total commute person-miles traveled by telecommuters with those of nontelecommuters, on a quarterly basis. Key findings include the following. One-way commute distances were higher for telecommuters than for nontelecommuters, consistent with prior empirical evidence and with expectation. Average telecommuting frequency declined over time; several explanations are proposed, but cannot be properly tested with these data. The first two findings notwithstanding, the average quarterly per capita total commute distances were generally lower for telecommuters than for nontelecommuters, indicating that they telecommute often enough to more than compensate for their longer one-way commutes. We cannot say from these results whether the ability to telecommute is itself prompting individuals to move farther away, or whether telecommuting is simply more attractive to people who already live farther from work for other reasons. Even if the first is true, however, and telecommuting is the 'problem', it also appears to be the solution: that is, it enables people to achieve a desired but more distant residential location without a net increase in commute travel.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Qing Shen, 2000. "New telecommunications and residential location flexibility," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 32(8), pages 1445-1463, August.
- Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Handy, Susan L. & Salomon, Ilan, 1995.
"Methodological issues in the estimation of the travel, energy, and air quality impacts of telecommuting,"
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice,
Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 283-302, July.
- Mokhtarian, Patricia & Handy, Susan & Salomon, Ilan, 1995. "Methodological Issues in the Estimation of the Travel, Energy, and Air Quality Impacts of Telecommuting," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt44n3k2jp, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pio:envira:v:36:y:2004:i:10:p:1877-1897. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Neil Hammond)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.