IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/pio/envira/v34y2002i4p695-716.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Modelling environmental equity: access to air quality in Birmingham, England

Author

Listed:
  • Julii S Brainard
  • Andrew P Jones
  • Ian J Bateman
  • Andrew A Lovett
  • Peter J Fallon

Abstract

Many studies in the USA have noted inequities with regard to the socioeconomic status or racial character of communities and their relative exposure to environmental disamenities. In this paper the authors focus particularly on the environmental equity of air pollution in the English city of Birmingham. Using statistical methodologies they examine the pattern of exposure to two key air pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) across certain population groups in the city. Estimated emission levels of CO and NO 2 were mapped by using modelled associations between vehicle densities and measured emissions at existing monitoring stations. These data were input to a geographical information system (GIS) for subsequent comparisons with population maps. Three types of variables were considered to distinguish possibly disadvantaged populations: age profile, ethnic make-up, and poverty indicators. From the 1991 Census, relevant statistics were derived for each enumeration district in the city. No relationship could be established on the age variable (that is, neither children nor pensioners appear to differ from the general population in their likely exposure patterns). However, there was a striking relationship between modelled emissions and poverty indicators and ethnicity. The effects are difficult to separate out but there is strong evidence to suggest that the two factors (poverty and ethnicity) operate in an independent manner. The implications of these findings, with regard to the causes of the disparities and the likely impacts of possible efforts to improve air quality in Birmingham, are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Julii S Brainard & Andrew P Jones & Ian J Bateman & Andrew A Lovett & Peter J Fallon, 2002. "Modelling environmental equity: access to air quality in Birmingham, England," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 34(4), pages 695-716, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:pio:envira:v:34:y:2002:i:4:p:695-716
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.envplan.com/abstract.cgi?id=a34184
    File Function: abstract
    Download Restriction: Fulltext access restricted to subscribers, see http://www.envplan.co.uk/A.html for details

    File URL: http://www.envplan.com/epa/fulltext/a34/a34184.pdf
    File Function: main text
    Download Restriction: Fulltext access restricted to subscribers, see http://www.envplan.co.uk/A.html for details

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. I.J. Bateman & A.P. Jones & A.A. Lovett & I.R. Lake & B.H. Day, 2002. "Applying Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to Environmental and Resource Economics," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 22(1), pages 219-269, June.
    2. repec:eee:trapol:v:81:y:2019:i:c:p:302-310 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Pearce, Jamie R. & Richardson, Elizabeth A. & Mitchell, Richard J. & Shortt, Niamh K., 2011. "Environmental justice and health: A study of multiple environmental deprivation and geographical inequalities in health in New Zealand," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 73(3), pages 410-420, August.
    4. Karel Martens, 2011. "Substance precedes methodology: on cost–benefit analysis and equity," Transportation, Springer, vol. 38(6), pages 959-974, November.
    5. Germani, Anna Rita & Morone, Piergiuseppe & Testa, Giuseppina, 2014. "Environmental justice and air pollution: A case study on Italian provinces," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 69-82.
    6. Undp, 2011. "HDR 2011 - Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All," Human Development Report (1990 to present), Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), number hdr2011, December.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pio:envira:v:34:y:2002:i:4:p:695-716. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Neil Hammond) The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask Neil Hammond to update the entry or send us the correct email address. General contact details of provider: http://www.pion.co.uk .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.