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Unemployment and business formation rates: reconciling time-series and cross-section evidence

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  • R T Hamilton

Abstract

Time-series analyses generally show rates of business formation increasing with unemployment. In cross-section studies the areas with the highest rates of formation are generally those with the lowest levels of unemployment. In a study using both types of data, the negative cross-section relationship is confirmed but it is suggested that the time-series may be nonlinear, becoming negative at a critical unemployment level around 20%. The paper concludes with a reconciliation of these findings.

Suggested Citation

  • R T Hamilton, 1989. "Unemployment and business formation rates: reconciling time-series and cross-section evidence," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 21(2), pages 249-255, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:pio:envira:v:21:y:1989:i:2:p:249-255
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    Cited by:

    1. Thurik, A. Roy & Carree, Martin A. & van Stel, André & Audretsch, David B., 2008. "Does self-employment reduce unemployment?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 673-686, November.
    2. Francesco Quatraro & Marco Vivarelli, 2015. "Drivers of Entrepreneurship and Post-entry Performance of Newborn Firms in Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 30(2), pages 277-305.
    3. Enrico Santarelli & Marco Vivarelli, 2007. "Entrepreneurship and the process of firms’ entry, survival and growth," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(3), pages 455-488, June.
    4. José María Millán & Emilio Congregado & Concepción Román, 2010. "Determinants of Self-Employment Dynamics and their Implications on Entrepreneurial Policy Effectiveness," Lecturas de Economía, Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Economía, issue 72, pages 45-76.
    5. Giacomin, Olivier & Janssen, Frank & Guyot, Jean-luc & Lohest, Olivier, 2011. "Opportunity and/or necessity entrepreneurship? The impact of the socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurs," MPRA Paper 29506, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Sander Wennekers & Roy Thurik & André van Stel & Niels Noorderhaven, 2003. "Uncertainty Avoidance and the Rate of Business Ownership across 22 OECD Countries, 1976-2000," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-089/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 01 Sep 2004.
    7. Niels G. Noorderhaven & Sander Wennekers & Geert Hofstede & A. Roy Thurik & Ralph E. Wildeman, 1999. "Self-Employment out of Dissatisfaction: An International Study," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-089/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    8. Shaoming Cheng & Huaqun Li, 2010. "The effects of unemployment on new firm formation revisited: Does space matter?," Regional Science Policy & Practice, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(2), pages 97-120, November.
    9. Sander Wennekers & Roy Thurik & André Stel & Niels Noorderhaven, 2007. "Uncertainty avoidance and the rate of business ownership across 21 OECD countries, 1976–2004," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 133-160, April.
    10. Marco Vivarelli, 2013. "Is entrepreneurship necessarily good? Microeconomic evidence from developed and developing countries," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(6), pages 1453-1495, December.
    11. repec:asi:ijoass:2017:p:684-695 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Mathilde Aubry & Jean Bonnet & Patricia Renou-Maissant, 2013. "Business cycle and entrepreneurial behavior using French regional data," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 201304, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
    13. D.B. Audretsch & M.A. Carree & A.R. Thurik, 2001. "Does Entrepreneurship reduce Unemployment?," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-074/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 24 Oct 2008.
    14. Dawson, Christopher & Henley, Andrew & Latreille, Paul L., 2009. "Why Do Individuals Choose Self-Employment?," IZA Discussion Papers 3974, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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