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Spatial flows and spatial patterns

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  • A S Fotheringham

Abstract

The misspecification of gravity spatial interaction models has recently been described by the author. The bias in parameter estimates that results from such misspecification appears to produce the 'map pattern effect' or 'spatial structure bias' in estimated distance-decay parameters. A further aspect of the misspecification bias in gravity parameter estimates is explored here. The severity of the bias is shown to vary in a predictable manner with variations in spatial structure. In particular, the bias is shown to be dependent upon the pattern of accessibility that exists with a spatial system. The relevant aspects of this pattern are discussed for intraurban and interurban (or interregional) flow matrices. It is shown that from an examination of the spatial structure of centres in a spatial system it is possible, a priori, to identify whether significant bias will arise in the calibration of a gravity model. Certain configurations of centres are shown theoretically to produce maximal bias. The author thus answers the question, "why do gravity parameter estimates appear to be biased in some systems but not in others?"

Suggested Citation

  • A S Fotheringham, 1984. "Spatial flows and spatial patterns," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 16(4), pages 529-543, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:pio:envira:v:16:y:1984:i:4:p:529-543
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    Cited by:

    1. Felipa Mello Sampayo, 2006. "The Geographic Distribution of Economic Activities of the USA Multinational Enterprises," DEGIT Conference Papers c011_040, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
    2. BOSSUYT, Audrey & BROZE, Laurence & GINSBURGH, Victor, 2001. "On invisible trade relations between Mesopotamian cities during the Third Millennium B.C," CORE Discussion Papers RP 1515, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    3. Mark D. Partridge & Dan S. Rickman & Kamar Ali & M. Rose Olfert, 2008. "The Geographic Diversity of U.S. Nonmetropolitan Growth Dynamics: A Geographically Weighted Regression Approach," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 84(2), pages 241-266.
    4. de Mello-Sampayo, Felipa, 2014. "Gravity for Outsourcing: an Application with Input-Output Dataset," MPRA Paper 59843, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Gitlesen, Jens Petter & Thorsen, Inge, 1999. "An Empirical Evaluation of how commuting flows respond to new road connections and Toll Charges," ERSA conference papers ersa99pa107, European Regional Science Association.
    6. Gitlesen, Jens Petter & Thorsen, Inge & Ubøe, Jan, 2004. "Misspecifications due to aggregation of data in models for journeys-to-work," Discussion Papers 2004/13, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
    7. de Mello-Sampayo, Felipa, 2014. "Gravity for Health: an Application to State Mental Hospital Admissions in Texas," MPRA Paper 59758, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Matteo Lippi Bruni & Lucia Nobilio & Cristina Ugolini, 2008. "The analysis of a cardiological network in a regulated setting: a spatial interaction approach," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(2), pages 221-233.
    9. Aura Reggiani & Pietro Bucci & Giovanni Russo & Anette Haas & Peter Nijkamp, 2011. "Regional Labour Markets and Job Accessibility in City Network Systems in Germany," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-104/3, Tinbergen Institute.

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