The Social Vulnerability of Women
In the course of reform, the opportunities to apply the labor abilities of the population have nominally increased, but they have not been realized in practice for a number of reasons. The social heterogeneity of the labor force is quite great, and, in extreme manifestations, it will appear as social vulnerability (lack of protections). We should, first and foremost, consider as characteristics of social vulnerability the indicators of unemployment and poverty. The unemployment level reflects the degree of inaccessibility of labor activity to a portion of the economically active population, owing to insufficient capacity of the labor market. Poverty is a characteristic of the lack of social protections of the entire population, however, in terms of its economically active portion, it has a certain specific nature. The criteria of poverty in Russia are based on maximum consumer characteristics, and a decline in the incomes of the employed below threshold values does not make it possible to reproduce their own ability to work. This neediness has found expression in the concept of the "new" poor or the "working poor."
Volume (Year): 43 (2001)
Issue (Month): 9 (January)
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