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Medición de la calidad y de los efectos de los precios en la demanda de alimentos

Listed author(s):
  • Azucena Gracia Royo

    (Servicio de Investigación Agroalimentaria. Diputación General de Aragón)

  • Luis Miguel Albisu Aguado

    (Servicio de Investigación Agroalimentaria. Diputación General de Aragón)

El objetivo del trabajo es analizar la estructura de la demanda de productos alimenticios en España. Se utilizan los datos desagregados de la Encuesta de Presupuestos Familiares de 1990-91. Los datos disponibles son los gastos y cantidades consumidas de los diferentes productos, los ingresos y una serie de características sociodemográficas de los hogares. El valor unitario se calcula a partir del gasto y las cantidades. Cuando se utiliza este valor unitario en las estimaciones de demanda hay que tener en cuenta que no se trata de un precio real de mercado sino del precio de adquisición del producto por cada hogar. Es decir, este precio implica una decisión del consumidor, que va a depender de la renta del hogar y de sus características sociodemográficas.Las familias con mayor renta consumirán diferente combinación de bienes, probablemente más caros, y por lo tanto su valor unitario será superior. El valor unitario tiene dos componentes, el precio de mercado y la diferente combinación o indicativo de la calidad de los productos consumidos dentro del grupo. Esto conduce a que no pueda ser utilizado como medida directa del precio pero sí para medir los efectos de la calidad. La medición de la calidad y de los efectos de los precios en la demanda se efectúa mediante la formulación de un modelo de comportamiento del consumidor, en el que se supone que los consumidores eligen simultáneamente no sólo la cantidad consumida sino también la calidad. The aim of the paper is to analyse Spanish food demand. Desaggregated data from the National Expenditure Survey 1990-91 are used. Expenditure and quantities as well as income and sociodemographic household caracteristics are provided. Unit values are calculated dividing expenditure by quantity. The utilization of unit values in demand estimations could not be appropriate because they are not market prices. It means that these values depend on income and sociodemographics caracteristics of consumers. Wealthier families consume more expensives items within the food product bundle and therefore, more quality products. Then, unit values have two components, price and quality effects. Thus, it is not possible to use unit values instead of prices for estimation purposes. The measure of quality and quality that they consume.

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Article provided by Estudios de Economía Aplicada in its journal Estudios de Economía Aplicada.

Volume (Year): 6 (1996)
Issue (Month): (Diciembre)
Pages: 131-147

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Handle: RePEc:lrk:eeaart:6_3_6
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Beatriz Rodríguez Prado. Facultad de CC.EE. y EE. Avda. Valle del Esgueva. Valladolid 47011 SPAIN

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  1. Deaton, Angus, 1990. "Price elasticities from survey data : Extensions and Indonesian results," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 281-309, June.
  2. Deaton, Angus, 1987. "Estimation of own- and cross-price elasticities from household survey data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 7-30.
  3. Heien, Dale & Wessells, Cathy Roheim, 1990. "Demand Systems Estimation with Microdata: A Censored Regression Approach," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 8(3), pages 365-371, July.
  4. Blanciforti, Laura & Green, Richard, 1983. "An Almost Ideal Demand System Incorporating Habits: An Analysis of Expenditures on Food and Aggregate Commodity Groups," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(3), pages 511-515, August.
  5. L. Wade, 1988. "Review," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 58(1), pages 99-100, July.
  6. Harold Alderman, 1988. "Estimates of Consumer Price Response in Pakistan using Market Prices as Data," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 27(2), pages 89-107.
  7. Deaton, A. & Grimard, F., 1992. "Demand Analysis and Tax Reform in Pakistan," Papers 85, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
  8. N. A. Burney & M. Akmal, 1991. "Food Demand In Pakistan: An Application Of The Extended Linear Expenditure System," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(2), pages 185-195.
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