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Convergencia nominal y convergencia real de España y Portugal con la Unión Europea (1986-1999)1



    () (Departamento de Economía Aplicada I. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales. Universidad de A Coruña.)


El presente trabajo examina si las profundas transformaciones llevadas a cabo desde la adhesión de España y Portugal a la Unión Europea en 1986 han potenciado los procesos de convergencia de estas economías con sus socios de la UE, diferenciando entre la convergencia nominal y la real. Para ello, se establecen y se definen las variables determinantes de ambos tipos de convergencia. Posteriormente, se comparan los valores de las mismas en estos últimos quince años para España, Portugal y la UE, añadiendo dos indicadores sintéticos: uno, para la convergencia nominal, y otro, para la convergencia real. Los resultados nos indican que sí se puede hablar de un proceso de convergencia nominal de las economías de España y Portugal hacia los estándares comunitarios; sin embargo, su convergencia real ha seguido un proceso mucho más lento e irregular y deberá continuar siendo una meta para alcanzar en los próximos años. This paper examines whether the deep changes ocurred since the spanish and portuguese integration in the EU in 1986 have boosted the processes of convergence of those economies with their EU partners, distinguishing between the nominal and real convergence. In order to do this, the specific variables of both types of convergence are established and defined. Then, their values for the last fifteen years in Spain, Portugal and EU are compared, adding two synthetic indicators: one, for the nominal convergence, and the other, for the real convergence. Results show that we might indeed talk about a nominal convergence process of Spain and Portugal economies towards community standards; nonetheless, their real convergence has followed a much slower and more irregular process and will have to keep on being a goal to be achieved in the coming years.

Suggested Citation

  • López Martínez, I., 2001. "Convergencia nominal y convergencia real de España y Portugal con la Unión Europea (1986-1999)1," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 19, pages 49-68, Diciembre.
  • Handle: RePEc:lrk:eeaart:19_3_10

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Carre, Martine, 1997. "European Nominal and Real Convergence: Joint Process or Rival Dynamics?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(4), pages 77-91, Supplemen.
    2. Quah, Danny, 1993. " Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(4), pages 427-443, December.
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    More about this item


    nominal convergence; real convergence; economic indicators; Spain; Portugal.;

    JEL classification:

    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration
    • O52 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Europe


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