IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Who Should Merge with Whom? Financial Benefits and Costs from Mergers and Acquisitions


  • Christian Koziol

    (Universität Hohenheim, Lehrstuhl für Risikomanagement und Derivate, D-70593 Stuttgart)

  • Markus Theis

    (WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management, Lehrstuhl für Corporate Finance, Burgplatz 2, D-56179 Vallendar)


Mergers and acquisitions are prominent forms of transactions that combine two firms in a way that one unit with a new asset and a new liability side arises. Since both the equity and the debt positions of the merging entities are affected by such a deal, it is not clear whether positive synergies are equivalent to an improvement of the acquirer equity holders’ position, who initiate the takeover decision. We introduce a frictionless, continuous-time model to compute the financial costs for the acquirers’ equity value, when carrying out a zerosynergy takeover. This allows us to identify the characteristics of potential target companies that are especially well-suited to reduce these financial costs (and thus make a deal worthwhile for given synergies). We find that firms should consider targets having about the same business risks and relatively low debt ratios. While targets are supposed to be small in mergers, they can also be comparably large in debt financed acquisitions. Empirical observations support the relevance of the wealth effects of the debt position suggested by the model and additionally reveal that the acquirers’ debt position is affected in different directions depending on whether a merger or an acquisition takes place.

Suggested Citation

  • Christian Koziol & Markus Theis, 2011. "Who Should Merge with Whom? Financial Benefits and Costs from Mergers and Acquisitions," Credit and Capital Markets, Credit and Capital Markets, vol. 44(3), pages 393-417.
  • Handle: RePEc:kuk:journl:v:44:y:2011:i:3:p:393-417

    Download full text from publisher

    To our knowledge, this item is not available for download. To find whether it is available, there are three options:
    1. Check below whether another version of this item is available online.
    2. Check on the provider's web page whether it is in fact available.
    3. Perform a search for a similarly titled item that would be available.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Michael Bordo & Barry Eichengreen & Daniela Klingebiel & Maria Soledad Martinez-Peria, 2001. "Is the crisis problem growing more severe?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 16(32), pages 51-82, April.
    2. Arturo Estrella & Frederic S. Mishkin, 1998. "Predicting U.S. Recessions: Financial Variables As Leading Indicators," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(1), pages 45-61, February.
    3. Jan Kakes & Cees Ullersma, 2003. "Financial stability in low-inflation environments," BIS Papers chapters,in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Monetary policy in a changing environment, volume 19, pages 355-367 Bank for International Settlements.
    4. Asea, Patrick K. & Blomberg, Brock, 1998. "Lending cycles," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1-2), pages 89-128.
    5. Bernanke, Ben S. & Gertler, Mark & Gilchrist, Simon, 1999. "The financial accelerator in a quantitative business cycle framework," Handbook of Macroeconomics,in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 21, pages 1341-1393 Elsevier.
    6. Michael D. Bordo & Olivier Jeanne, 2002. "Boom-Busts in Asset Prices, Economic Instability, and Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 8966, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. R. Glenn Hubbard, 1998. "Capital-Market Imperfections and Investment," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(1), pages 193-225, March.
    8. Ashoka Mody & Mark P. Taylor, 2003. "The High-Yield Spread as a Predictor of Real Economic Activity: Evidence of a Financial Accelerator for the United States," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 50(3), pages 1-3.
    9. Bernanke, Ben S, 1983. "Nonmonetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in Propagation of the Great Depression," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(3), pages 257-276, June.
    10. Gertler, Mark & Lown, Cara S, 1999. "The Information in the High-Yield Bond Spread for the Business Cycle: Evidence and Some Implications," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(3), pages 132-150, Autumn.
    11. James M. Poterba, 2000. "Stock Market Wealth and Consumption," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(2), pages 99-118, Spring.
    12. Age Bakker & Bryan Chapple, 2002. "Advanced Country Experiences with Capital Account Liberalization," IMF Occasional Papers 214, International Monetary Fund.
    13. Philip Lowe & Claudio Borio, 2002. "Asset prices, financial and monetary stability: exploring the nexus," BIS Working Papers 114, Bank for International Settlements.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kuk:journl:v:44:y:2011:i:3:p:393-417. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Credit and Capital Markets). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.