IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/jmgtgv/v20y2016i3d10.1007_s10997-014-9305-x.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Revamping research on unrelated diversification strategy: perspectives, opportunities and challenges for future inquiry

Author

Listed:
  • Pasquale Massimo Picone

    () (University of Catania)

  • Giovanni Battista Dagnino

    () (University of Catania)

Abstract

Abstract With the aim of achieving an advanced understanding of current research on unrelated diversification and providing fruitful groundwork to foster active interchange between disciplinary traditions, this paper detects articles from two relevant research streams; i.e., strategic management and financial economics. We first provide a brief overview of management thinking on unrelated diversification strategy. Then, we present a conceptual map that offers a comprehensive appreciation of unrelated diversification strategy antecedents (i.e., environmental and institutional, organizational value-enhancing, and managerial drivers), implementation process (i.e., managerial complexity, misallocation of resources, and structural inertia), and consequences (i.e., diversification premiums and discounts). Finally, we unpack the major gaps in our current knowledge that may help refocus the research agenda on unrelated diversification strategy and revamp the apparent waning proclivity of this issue.

Suggested Citation

  • Pasquale Massimo Picone & Giovanni Battista Dagnino, 2016. "Revamping research on unrelated diversification strategy: perspectives, opportunities and challenges for future inquiry," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 20(3), pages 413-445, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jmgtgv:v:20:y:2016:i:3:d:10.1007_s10997-014-9305-x
    DOI: 10.1007/s10997-014-9305-x
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10997-014-9305-x
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Stowe, John D. & Xing, Xuejing, 2006. "Can growth opportunities explain the diversification discount?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 783-796, September.
    2. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Saul Estrin & Svetlana Poukliakova & Daniel Shapiro, 2009. "The Performance Effects of Business Groups in Russia," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(3), pages 393-420, May.
    4. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    5. Evgeny Lyandres, 2007. "Strategic Cost of Diversification," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 20(6), pages 1901-1940, November.
    6. Rongxin Chen, 1996. "Technological Expansion: the Interaction Between Diversification Strategy and Organizational Capability," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(5), pages 649-666, September.
    7. Stein, Jeremy C, 1997. " Internal Capital Markets and the Competition for Corporate Resources," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 111-133, March.
    8. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1989. "Management entrenchment : The case of manager-specific investments," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 123-139, November.
    9. Burch, Timothy R. & Nanda, Vikram, 2003. "Divisional diversity and the conglomerate discount: evidence from spinoffs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 69-98, October.
    10. Vojislav Maksimovic & Gordon Phillips, 2002. "Do Conglomerate Firms Allocate Resources Inefficiently Across Industries? Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 721-767, April.
    11. Karl V. Lins & Henri Servaes, 2002. "Is Corporate Diversification Beneficial in Emerging Market?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 31(2), Summer.
    12. Baumol, William J, 1982. "Contestable Markets: An Uprising in the Theory of Industry Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 1-15, March.
    13. Gopalan, Radhakrishnan & Nanda, Vikram & Seru, Amit, 2007. "Affiliated firms and financial support: Evidence from Indian business groups," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(3), pages 759-795, December.
    14. Williamson, Oliver E, 1979. "Transaction-Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractural Relations," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(2), pages 233-261, October.
    15. Bolton, Patrick & Scharfstein, David S, 1990. "A Theory of Predation Based on Agency Problems in Financial Contracting," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 93-106, March.
    16. Yakov Amihud & Baruch Lev, 1981. "Risk Reduction as a Managerial Motive for Conglomerate Mergers," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 12(2), pages 605-617, Autumn.
    17. repec:hrv:faseco:30728046 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Kim, Kong-Hee & Al-Shammari, Hussam A. & Kim, Bongjin & Lee, Seung-Hyun, 2009. "CEO duality leadership and corporate diversification behavior," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(11), pages 1173-1180, November.
    19. John G. Matsusaka, 1993. "Takeover Motives during the Conglomerate Merger Wave," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 24(3), pages 357-379, Autumn.
    20. Rebecca N. Hann & Maria Ogneva & Oguzhan Ozbas, 2013. "Corporate Diversification and the Cost of Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 68(5), pages 1961-1999, October.
    21. Lewellen, Wilbur G, 1971. "A Pure Financial Rationale for the Conglomerate Merger," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 26(2), pages 521-537, May.
    22. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    23. Avenel, E. & Favier, A.V. & Ma, S. & Mangematin, V. & Rieu, C., 2007. "Diversification and hybridization in firm knowledge bases in nanotechnologies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 864-870, July.
    24. Fauver, Larry & Houston, Joel & Naranjo, Andy, 2003. "Capital Market Development, International Integration, Legal Systems, and the Value of Corporate Diversification: A Cross-Country Analysis," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(01), pages 135-158, March.
    25. Joao Gomes & Dmitry Livdan, 2004. "Optimal Diversification: Reconciling Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 507-535, April.
    26. Ran Duchin, 2010. "Cash Holdings and Corporate Diversification," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(3), pages 955-992, June.
    27. Bernardo, Antonio E. & Luo, Jiang & Wang, James J.D., 2006. "A theory of socialistic internal capital markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(3), pages 485-509, June.
    28. Tomas Jandik & Anil K. Makhija, 2005. "Can Diversification Create Value? Evidence from the Electric Utility Industry," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 34(1), Spring.
    29. David J. Denis & Diane K. Denis & Keven Yost, 2002. "Global Diversification, Industrial Diversification, and Firm Value," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 1951-1979, October.
    30. Hoechle, Daniel & Schmid, Markus & Walter, Ingo & Yermack, David, 2012. "How much of the diversification discount can be explained by poor corporate governance?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(1), pages 41-60.
    31. Eric von Hippel, 2007. "Horizontal innovation networks—by and for users," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(2), pages 293-315, April.
    32. Lamont, Owen, 1997. " Cash Flow and Investment: Evidence from Internal Capital Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 83-109, March.
    33. Stulz, ReneM., 1990. "Managerial discretion and optimal financing policies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 3-27, July.
    34. Belén Villalonga, 2004. "Diversification Discount or Premium? New Evidence from the Business Information Tracking Series," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 479-506, April.
    35. Tarun Khanna & Krishna Palepu, 2000. "Is Group Affiliation Profitable in Emerging Markets? An Analysis of Diversified Indian Business Groups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 867-891, April.
    36. Massa, Massimo & Rehman, Zahid, 2008. "Information flows within financial conglomerates: Evidence from the banks-mutual funds relation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 288-306, August.
    37. Raghuram Rajan & Henri Servaes & Luigi Zingales, 2000. "The Cost of Diversity: The Diversification Discount and Inefficient Investment," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(1), pages 35-80, February.
    38. Ronald C. Anderson & Thomas W. Bates & John M. Bizjak & Michael L. Lemmon, 2000. "Corporate Governance and Firm Diversification," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 29(1), Spring.
    39. Ike Mathur & Manohar Singh & Kimberly C. Gleason, 2004. "Multinational Diversification and Corporate Performance: Evidence from European Firms," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 10(3), pages 439-464.
    40. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
    41. Benston, George J., 1985. "The self-serving management hypothesis : Some evidence," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(1-3), pages 67-84, April.
    42. Hadlock, Charles J & Ryngaert, Michael & Thomas, Shawn, 2001. "Corporate Structure and Equity Offerings: Are There Benefits to Diversification?," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74(4), pages 613-635, October.
    43. Michael Gort, 1962. "Diversification and Integration in American Industry," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gort62-1, December.
    44. Caves, Richard E, 1981. "Diversification and Seller Concentration: Evidence from Changes, 1963-72," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(2), pages 289-293, May.
    45. Seru, Amit, 2014. "Firm boundaries matter: Evidence from conglomerates and R&D activity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(2), pages 381-405.
    46. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1997. " A Survey of Corporate Governance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 737-783, June.
    47. Toni M. Whited, 2001. "Is It Inefficient Investment that Causes the Diversification Discount?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(5), pages 1667-1691, October.
    48. Neil M. Kay, 2002. "Chandlerism in post-war Europe: strategic and structural change in France, Germany and the United Kingdom, 1950--1993: a comment," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(1), pages 189-197, February.
    49. McConnell, John J. & Servaes, Henri, 1990. "Additional evidence on equity ownership and corporate value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 595-612, October.
    50. Anand Mohan Goel, 2004. "Career Concerns and Resource Allocation in Conglomerates," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 17(1), pages 99-128.
    51. Cardinal, Laura B. & Opler, Tim C., 1995. "Corporate diversification and innovative efficiency an empirical study," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 365-381, April.
    52. Yuhai Xuan, 2009. "Empire-Building or Bridge-Building? Evidence from New CEOs' Internal Capital Allocation Decisions," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(12), pages 4919-4948, December.
    53. David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 2000. "The Dark Side of Internal Capital Markets: Divisional Rent-Seeking and Inefficient Investment," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2537-2564, December.
    54. Ronald W. Best & Charles W. Hodges & Bing-Xuan Lin, 2004. "Does Information Asymmetry Explain The Diversification Discount?," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 27(2), pages 235-249.
    55. Belén Villalonga, 2004. "Does Diversification Cause the "Diversification Discount"?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 33(2), Summer.
    56. Martin, John D. & Sayrak, Akin, 2003. "Corporate diversification and shareholder value: a survey of recent literature," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 37-57, January.
    57. Jose Manuel Campa & Simi Kedia, 2002. "Explaining the Diversification Discount," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1731-1762, August.
    58. Martynova, Marina & Renneboog, Luc, 2008. "A century of corporate takeovers: What have we learned and where do we stand?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(10), pages 2148-2177, October.
    59. Kulwant Singh, 2007. "The limited relevance of culture to strategy," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 421-428, December.
    60. Roman Inderst & Holger M. Müller, 2003. "Internal versus External Financing: An Optimal Contracting Approach," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(3), pages 1033-1062, June.
    61. Murillo Campello, 2002. "Internal Capital Markets in Financial Conglomerates: Evidence from Small Bank Responses to Monetary Policy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2773-2805, December.
    62. Boot, Arnoud W. A. & Schmeits, Anjolein, 2000. "Market Discipline and Incentive Problems in Conglomerate Firms with Applications to Banking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 240-273, July.
    63. Matsusaka, John G, 2001. "Corporate Diversification, Value Maximization, and Organizational Capabilities," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74(3), pages 409-431, July.
    64. John R. Graham & Michael L. Lemmon & Jack G. Wolf, 2002. "Does Corporate Diversification Destroy Value?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 695-720, April.
    65. Lamont, Owen A. & Polk, Christopher, 2002. "Does diversification destroy value? Evidence from the industry shocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 51-77, January.
    66. Kock, Carl J & Guillen, Mauro F, 2001. "Strategy and Structure in Developing Countries: Business Groups as an Evolutionary Response to Opportunities for Unrelated Diversification," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(1), pages 77-113, March.
    67. Naveen Khanna, 2001. "The Bright Side of Internal Capital Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(4), pages 1489-1528, August.
    68. Margaret Peteraf & Giada Di Stefano & Gianmario Verona, 2013. "The elephant in the room of dynamic capabilities: Bringing two diverging conversations together," Post-Print hal-00982438, HAL.
    69. Richard Borghesi & Joel Houston & Andy Naranjo, 2007. "Value, Survival, and the Evolution of Firm Organizational Structure," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 36(3), pages 5-31, September.
    70. Jensen, Michael C & Murphy, Kevin J, 1990. "Performance Pay and Top-Management Incentives," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(2), pages 225-264, April.
    71. Fluck, Zsuzsanna & Lynch, Anthony W, 1999. "Why Do Firms Merge and Then Divest? A Theory of Financial Synergy," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(3), pages 319-346, July.
    72. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    73. Matsusaka, John G. & Nanda, Vikram, 2002. "Internal Capital Markets and Corporate Refocusing," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 176-211, April.
    74. Tong, Zhenxu, 2011. "Firm diversification and the value of corporate cash holdings," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 741-758, June.
    75. Lang, Larry H P & Stulz, Rene M, 1994. "Tobin's q, Corporate Diversification, and Firm Performance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(6), pages 1248-1280, December.
    76. Yan, An & Yang, Zaihui & Jiao, Jie, 2010. "Conglomerate investment under various capital market conditions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 103-115, January.
    77. Patrick Bolton & David S. Scharfstein, 1998. "Corporate Finance, the Theory of the Firm, and Organizations," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 95-114, Fall.
    78. R. Glenn Hubbard & Darius Palia, 1999. "A Reexamination of the Conglomerate Merger Wave in the 1960s: An Internal Capital Markets View," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 1131-1152, June.
    79. Robert H. Gertner & David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1994. "Internal versus External Capital Markets," NBER Working Papers 4776, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    80. Peyer, Urs C. & Shivdasani, Anil, 2001. "Leverage and internal capital markets: evidence from leveraged recapitalizations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 477-515, March.
    81. Denis, David J & Denis, Diane K & Sarin, Atulya, 1997. " Agency Problems, Equity Ownership, and Corporate Diversification," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 135-160, March.
    82. Robert H. Gertner & David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1994. "Internal versus External Capital Markets," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(4), pages 1211-1230.
    83. Roman Inderst & Christian Laux, 2005. "Incentives in Internal Capital Markets: Capital Constraints, Competition, and Investment Opportunities," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 36(1), pages 215-228, Spring.
    84. repec:hal:journl:hal-00424531 is not listed on IDEAS
    85. Tarun Khanna & Yishay Yafeh, 2007. "Business Groups in Emerging Markets: Paragons or Parasites?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 45(2), pages 331-372, June.
    86. Reid, Samuel R, 1971. "A Reply to the Weston/Mansinghka Criticisms Dealing with Conglomerate Mergers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 26(4), pages 937-946, September.
    87. Quintana-Garci­a, Cristina & Benavides-Velasco, Carlos A., 2008. "Innovative competence, exploration and exploitation: The influence of technological diversification," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 492-507, April.
    88. Kay, N.M., 1992. "Markets, false hierarchies and the evolution of the modern corporation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 315-333, May.
    89. Garth Saloner, 1987. "Predation, Mergers, and Incomplete Information," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 18(2), pages 165-186, Summer.
    90. Desmond W. Ng, 2007. "A Modern Resource Based Approach to Unrelated Diversification," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(8), pages 1481-1502, December.
    91. May, Don O, 1995. " Do Managerial Motives Influence Firm Risk Reduction Strategies?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1291-1308, September.
    92. Igor Filatotchev & Gregory Jackson & Chizu Nakajima, 2013. "Corporate governance and national institutions: A review and emerging research agenda," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 965-986, December.
    93. Sattar A. Mansi & David M. Reeb, 2002. "Corporate Diversification: What Gets Discounted?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 2167-2183, October.
    94. Antoinette Schoar, 2002. "Effects of Corporate Diversification on Productivity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2379-2403, December.
    95. Ernst Maug, 1998. "Large Shareholders as Monitors: Is There a Trade-Off between Liquidity and Control?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(1), pages 65-98, February.
    96. Michael Gort, 1962. "Introduction to "Diversification and Integration in American Industry"," NBER Chapters,in: Diversification and Integration in American Industry, pages 3-7 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    97. Richmond D. Mathews & David T. Robinson, 2008. "Market Structure, Internal Capital Markets, and the Boundaries of the Firm," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(6), pages 2703-2736, December.
    98. Cline, Brandon N. & Garner, Jacqueline L. & Yore, Adam S., 2014. "Exploitation of the internal capital market and the avoidance of outside monitoring," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 234-250.
    99. Servaes, Henri, 1996. " The Value of Diversification during the Conglomerate Merger Wave," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1201-1225, September.
    100. Chi-nien Chung, 2001. "Markets, Culture and Institutions: The Emergence of Large Business Groups in Taiwan, 1950s-1970s," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(5), pages 719-745, July.
    101. David J. Teece, 2012. "Dynamic Capabilities: Routines versus Entrepreneurial Action," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(8), pages 1395-1401, December.
    102. Montgomery, Cynthia A. & Hariharan, S., 1991. "Diversified expansion by large established firms," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 71-89, January.
    103. Melissa A. Schilling & Corey C. Phelps, 2007. "Interfirm Collaboration Networks: The Impact of Large-Scale Network Structure on Firm Innovation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 53(7), pages 1113-1126, July.
    104. Rajesh K. Aggarwal & Andrew A. Samwick, 2003. "Why Do Managers Diversify Their Firms? Agency Reconsidered," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(1), pages 71-118, February.
    105. Doukas, John A. & Kan, Ozgur B., 2008. "Investment decisions and internal capital markets: Evidence from acquisitions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1484-1498, August.
    106. Cynthia A. Montgomery, 1994. "Corporate Diversificaton," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 163-178, Summer.
    107. Matthew T. Billett, 2003. "Cross-Subsidies, External Financing Constraints, and the Contribution of the Internal Capital Market to Firm Value," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(4), pages 1167-1201.
    108. Karl Lins & Henri Servaes, 1999. "International Evidence on the Value of Corporate Diversification," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(6), pages 2215-2239, December.
    109. Brian S. Silverman, 1999. "Technological Resources and the Direction of Corporate Diversification: Toward an Integration of the Resource-Based View and Transaction Cost Economics," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(8), pages 1109-1124, August.
    110. Lilach Nachum, 2004. "Geographic and Industrial Diversification of Developing Country Firms," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 273-294, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:jmgtgv:v:20:y:2016:i:3:d:10.1007_s10997-014-9305-x. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.