IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/inm/ormsom/v9y2007i3p276-290.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Implementation of the Newsvendor Model with Clearance Pricing: How to (and How Not to) Estimate a Salvage Value

Author

Listed:
  • Gérard P. Cachon

    () (Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104)

  • A. Gürhan Kök

    () (Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708)

Abstract

The newsvendor model is designed to decide how much of a product to order when the product is to be sold over a short selling season with stochastic demand and there are no additional opportunities to replenish inventory. There are many practical situations that reasonably conform to those assumptions, but the traditional newsvendor model also assumes a fixed salvage value: all inventory left over at the end of the season is sold off at a fixed per-unit price. The fixed salvage value assumption is questionable when a clearance price is rationally chosen in response to the events observed during the selling season: a deep discount should be taken if there is plenty of inventory remaining at the end of the season, whereas a shallow discount is appropriate for a product with higher than expected demand. This paper solves for the optimal order quantity in the newsvendor model, assuming rational clearance pricing. We then study the performance of the traditional newsvendor model. The key to effective implementation of the traditional newsvendor model is choosing an appropriate fixed salvage value. (We show that an optimal order quantity cannot be generally achieved by merely enhancing the traditional newsvendor model to include a nonlinear salvage value function.) We demonstrate that several intuitive methods for estimating the salvage value can lead to an excessively large order quantity and a substantial profit loss. Even though the traditional model can result in poor performance, the model seems as if it is working correctly: the order quantity chosen is optimal given the salvage value inputted to the model, and the observed salvage value given the chosen order quantity equals the inputted one. We discuss how to estimate a salvage value that leads the traditional newsvendor model to the optimal or near-optimal order quantity. Our results highlight the importance of understanding how a model can interact with its own inputs: when inputs to a model are influenced by the decisions of the model, care is needed to appreciate how that interaction influences the decisions recommended by the model and how the model's inputs should be estimated.

Suggested Citation

  • Gérard P. Cachon & A. Gürhan Kök, 2007. "Implementation of the Newsvendor Model with Clearance Pricing: How to (and How Not to) Estimate a Salvage Value," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 9(3), pages 276-290, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormsom:v:9:y:2007:i:3:p:276-290
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/msom.1060.0145
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. William S. Lovejoy, 1990. "Myopic Policies for Some Inventory Models with Uncertain Demand Distributions," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 36(6), pages 724-738, June.
    2. Kevin H. Shang & Jing-Sheng Song, 2003. "Newsvendor Bounds and Heuristic for Optimal Policies in Serial Supply Chains," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 49(5), pages 618-638, May.
    3. Panagiotis Kouvelis & Genaro J. Gutierrez, 1997. "The Newsvendor Problem in a Global Market: Optimal Centralized and Decentralized Control Policies for a Two-Market Stochastic Inventory System," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 43(5), pages 571-585, May.
    4. Youyi Feng & Guillermo Gallego, 1995. "Optimal Starting Times for End-of-Season Sales and Optimal Stopping Times for Promotional Fares," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 41(8), pages 1371-1391, August.
    5. Guillermo Gallego & Garrett van Ryzin, 1994. "Optimal Dynamic Pricing of Inventories with Stochastic Demand over Finite Horizons," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(8), pages 999-1020, August.
    6. Marshall Fisher & Kumar Rajaram & Ananth Raman, 2001. "Optimizing Inventory Replenishment of Retail Fashion Products," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 3(3), pages 230-241, November.
    7. Nevo, Aviv, 2001. "Measuring Market Power in the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(2), pages 307-342, March.
    8. Gabriel R. Bitran & Susana V. Mondschein, 1997. "Periodic Pricing of Seasonal Products in Retailing," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 43(1), pages 64-79, January.
    9. Guillermo Gallego, 1998. "New Bounds and Heuristics for (Q, r) Policies," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(2), pages 219-233, February.
    10. Lode Li, 1992. "The Role of Inventory in Delivery-Time Competition," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 38(2), pages 182-197, February.
    11. Maurice E. Schweitzer & Gérard P. Cachon, 2000. "Decision Bias in the Newsvendor Problem with a Known Demand Distribution: Experimental Evidence," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(3), pages 404-420, March.
    12. Garrett van Ryzin & Siddharth Mahajan, 1999. "On the Relationship Between Inventory Costs and Variety Benefits in Retail Assortments," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(11), pages 1496-1509, November.
    13. Louis Eeckhoudt & Christian Gollier & Harris Schlesinger, 1995. "The Risk-Averse (and Prudent) Newsboy," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 41(5), pages 786-794, May.
    14. Pradeep Chintagunta & Tülin Erdem & Peter E. Rossi & Michel Wedel, 2006. "Structural Modeling in Marketing: Review and Assessment," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 25(6), pages 604-616, 11-12.
    15. Scott Carr & William Lovejoy, 2000. "The Inverse Newsvendor Problem: Choosing an Optimal Demand Portfolio for Capacitated Resources," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(7), pages 912-927, July.
    16. Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-890, July.
    17. James D. Dana, Jr. & Nicholas C. Petruzzi, 2001. "Note: The Newsvendor Model with Endogenous Demand," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(11), pages 1488-1497, November.
    18. Karen L. Donohue, 2000. "Efficient Supply Contracts for Fashion Goods with Forecast Updating and Two Production Modes," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(11), pages 1397-1411, November.
    19. Stephen A. Smith & Dale D. Achabal, 1998. "Clearance Pricing and Inventory Policies for Retail Chains," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(3), pages 285-300, March.
    20. Yu-Sheng Zheng, 1992. "On Properties of Stochastic Inventory Systems," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 38(1), pages 87-103, January.
    21. Vipul Agrawal & Sridhar Seshadri, 2000. "Impact of Uncertainty and Risk Aversion on Price and Order Quantity in the Newsvendor Problem," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 2(4), pages 410-423, July.
    22. Hau Lee & Seungjin Whang, 2002. "The Impact of the Secondary Market on the Supply Chain," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(6), pages 719-731, June.
    23. Sven Axsäter, 1996. "Using the Deterministic EOQ Formula in Stochastic Inventory Control," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 42(6), pages 830-834, June.
    24. Mor Armony & Erica L. Plambeck, 2005. "The Impact of Duplicate Orders on Demand Estimation and Capacity Investment," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 51(10), pages 1505-1518, October.
    25. Jan A. Van Mieghem, 1999. "Coordinating Investment, Production, and Subcontracting," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(7), pages 954-971, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:ejores:v:264:y:2018:i:1:p:181-199 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Necati Tereyagoglu & Senthil Veeraraghavan, 2012. "Selling to Conspicuous Consumers: Pricing, Production, and Sourcing Decisions," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 58(12), pages 2168-2189, December.
    3. Watt, Richard & Vázquez, Francisco J., 2017. "An analysis of insurance demand in the newsboy problem," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 259(3), pages 1064-1072.
    4. Khouja, Moutaz & Park, Sungjune & Zhou, Jing, 2013. "A free gift card alternative to price discounts in the newsvendor problem," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 41(4), pages 665-678.
    5. Manu Goyal & Serguei Netessine, 2011. "Volume Flexibility, Product Flexibility, or Both: The Role of Demand Correlation and Product Substitution," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 13(2), pages 180-193, March.
    6. Yanzhi Li & Andrew Lim & Brian Rodrigues, 2009. "Note--Pricing and Inventory Control for a Perishable Product," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 11(3), pages 538-542, February.
    7. Xing, Dahai & Liu, Tieming, 2012. "Sales effort free riding and coordination with price match and channel rebate," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 219(2), pages 264-271.
    8. Zhengping Wu & Wanshan Zhu & Pascale Crama, 2011. "The Newsvendor Problem with Advertising Revenue," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 13(3), pages 281-296, July.
    9. Patil, Rahul & Avittathur, Balram & Shah, Janat, 2010. "Supply chain strategies based on recourse model for very short life cycle products," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 128(1), pages 3-10, November.
    10. Jian Li & Suresh Chand & Maqbool Dada & Shailendra Mehta, 2009. "Managing Inventory Over a Short Season: Models with Two Procurement Opportunities," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 11(1), pages 174-184, April.
    11. Yalabik, Baris & Chhajed, Dilip & Petruzzi, Nicholas C., 2014. "Product and sales contract design in remanufacturing," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 154(C), pages 299-312.
    12. repec:eee:proeco:v:193:y:2017:i:c:p:647-653 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Murray, Chase C. & Gosavi, Abhijit & Talukdar, Debabrata, 2012. "The multi-product price-setting newsvendor with resource capacity constraints," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 138(1), pages 148-158.
    14. Karakul, M., 2008. "Joint pricing and procurement of fashion products in the existence of clearance markets," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(2), pages 487-506, August.
    15. repec:eee:ejores:v:268:y:2018:i:1:p:193-202 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Opher Baron & Iman Hajizadeh & Joseph Milner, 2011. "Now Playing: DVD Purchasing for a Multilocation Rental Firm," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 13(2), pages 209-226, April.
    17. repec:eee:proeco:v:188:y:2017:i:c:p:128-138 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. repec:spr:annopr:v:240:y:2016:i:2:d:10.1007_s10479-013-1489-y is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Gérard P. Cachon & Robert Swinney, 2009. "Purchasing, Pricing, and Quick Response in the Presence of Strategic Consumers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 55(3), pages 497-511, March.
    20. Burak Kazaz & Scott Webster, 2011. "The Impact of Yield-Dependent Trading Costs on Pricing and Production Planning Under Supply Uncertainty," Manufacturing & Service Operations Management, INFORMS, vol. 13(3), pages 404-417, July.
    21. Du, Jie & Zhang, Juliang & Hua, Guowei, 2015. "Pricing and inventory management in the presence of strategic customers with risk preference and decreasing value," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 160-166.
    22. Mohammad Ali Kashefi, 2013. "The Effect of Salvage Market on Strategic Technology Choice and Capacity Investment Decision of Firm under Demand Uncertainty," Iranian Economic Review, Economics faculty of Tehran university, vol. 18(1), pages 25-67, winter.
    23. Wang, Charles X. & Webster, Scott, 2009. "Markdown money contracts for perishable goods with clearance pricing," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 196(3), pages 1113-1122, August.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:inm:ormsom:v:9:y:2007:i:3:p:276-290. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mirko Janc). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/inforea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.