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Landscape Democracy, Three Sets of Values, and the Connoisseur Method


  • Finn Arler
  • Helena Mellqvist


The European Landscape Convention has brought up the question of democracy in relation to landscape transformation, but without a clear definition of democracy. This paper conceptualises democracy in relation to three main sets of values related to self-determination, co-determination and respect for argument. It examines various methods that have been used to try to make landscape decisions more democratic. In the last part of the paper the connoisseur method is introduced. This method emphasises stakeholder participation in deliberative processes with a particular focus on place-based knowledge. It has been used in Sweden as a means of involving local stakeholders in the democratic process of defining goals and objectives of their landscapes. In the conclusion, this method is recommended despite its dependence on favourable conditions, particularly continuity and commitment, and a few suggestions about possible improvements are presented.

Suggested Citation

  • Finn Arler & Helena Mellqvist, 2015. "Landscape Democracy, Three Sets of Values, and the Connoisseur Method," Environmental Values, White Horse Press, vol. 24(3), pages 271-298, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:env:journl:ev24:ev2411

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    More about this item


    Landscape Convention; landscape democracy; deliberative democracy; participation; self-determination; co-determination; focus groups; citizen juries; economic valuation; preference surveys; connoisseurs;

    JEL classification:

    • D46 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Value Theory
    • Q26 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources
    • Q51 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Valuation of Environmental Effects


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