IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

The exchange rate exposure puzzle

  • Söhnke M. Bartram
  • Gordon M. Bodnar

Purpose -Based on basic financial models and reports in the business press, exchange rate movements are generally believed to affect the value of nonfinancial firms. In contrast, the empirical research on nonfinancial firms typically produces fewer significant exposures estimates than researchers expect, independent of the sample studied and the methodology used, giving rise to a situation known as “the exposure puzzle”. To this end, this paper aims to systematically analyze the existing empirical evidence of the exposure phenomenon and to attempt to understand the possible source of the exposure puzzle. Design/methodology/approach -The paper provides a survey of the existing research on the exposure phenomenon for nonfinancial firms. A simple model of exposure elasticity is also used to demonstrate the substantial impact of operational hedging on exposure elasticities. Furthermore, the evidence on the nature of firms’ financial derivative usage is considered. Findings - It is suggested that the exposure puzzle may not be a problem of empirical methodology or sample selection as previous research has suggested, but is simply the result of the endogeneity of operative and financial hedging at the firm level. Given that empirical tests estimate exchange exposures net of corporate hedging, both firms with low gross exposures that do not need to hedge and firms with large gross exposures that employ one or several forms of hedging, may exhibit only weak exchange rate exposures net of hedging. Consequently, empirical tests yield only small percentages of firms with significant stock price exposures in almost any sample. Originality/value -If firms react rationally to their exposures, most firms will either have no exposure to start with, or reduce their exposure to levels that may be too small to detect empirically. Consequently, the exposure puzzle may not be a problem with methodology or theory, but mainly the result of endogeneity of operative and financial hedging at the firm level.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=0307-4358&volume=33&issue=9&articleid=1623643&show=abstract
Download Restriction: Cannot be freely downloaded

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Emerald Group Publishing in its journal Managerial Finance.

Volume (Year): 33 (2007)
Issue (Month): 9 ()
Pages: 642-666

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:eme:mfipps:v:33:y:2007:i:9:p:642-666
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.emeraldinsight.com

Order Information: Postal: Emerald Group Publishing, Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley, BD16 1WA, UK
Web: http://emeraldgrouppublishing.com/products/journals/journals.htm?id=mf Email:


References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Bartram, Sohnke M., 2004. "Linear and nonlinear foreign exchange rate exposures of German nonfinancial corporations," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 673-699, June.
  2. Jorion, Philippe, 1990. "The Exchange-Rate Exposure of U.S. Multinationals," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(3), pages 331-45, July.
  3. Jorion, Philippe, 1991. "The Pricing of Exchange Rate Risk in the Stock Market," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(03), pages 363-376, September.
  4. Asprem, Mads, 1989. "Stock prices, asset portfolios and macroeconomic variables in ten European countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(4-5), pages 589-612, September.
  5. Kathryn M. E. Dominguez & Linda L. Tesar, 2001. "Trade and Exposure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 367-370, May.
  6. Kent D Miller & Jeffrey J Reuer, 1998. "Firm Strategy and Economic Exposure to Foreign Exchange Rate Movements," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(3), pages 493-513, September.
  7. Dominguez, Kathryn M., 1998. "The Dollar Exposure of Japanese Companies," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 388-405, December.
  8. Bartov, Eli & Bodnar, Gordon M, 1994. " Firm Valuation, Earnings Expectations, and the Exchange-Rate Exposure Effect," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1755-85, December.
  9. Kenneth A. Froot & David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1992. "Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," NBER Working Papers 4084, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Bartram, Söhnke M., 2008. "What lies beneath: Foreign exchange rate exposure, hedging and cash flows," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1508-1521, August.
  11. Bartram, S.M., 2000. "Corporate Risk Management as a Lever for Shareholder Value Creation," Papers 00-58, Southern California - School of Business Administration.
  12. Gordon M. Bodnar & Bernard Dumas & Richard C. Marston, 2002. "Pass-through and Exposure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 199-231, 02.
  13. Nance, Deana R & Smith, Clifford W, Jr & Smithson, Charles W, 1993. " On the Determinants of Corporate Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 267-84, March.
  14. Allayannis, George & Ihrig, Jane, 2001. "Exposure and Markups," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(3), pages 805-35.
  15. Nguyen, Hoa & Faff, Robert, 2003. "Can the use of foreign currency derivatives explain variations in foreign exchange exposure?: Evidence from Australian companies," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 193-215, July.
  16. Sohnke M. Bartram & G. Andrew Karolyi, 2002. "The Impact of the Introduction of the Euro on Foreign Exchange Rate Risk Exposures," Finance 0207005, EconWPA, revised 16 Sep 2002.
  17. Bartov, Eli & Bodnar, Gordon M. & Kaul, Aditya, 1996. "Exchange rate variability and the riskiness of U.S. multinational firms: Evidence from the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 105-132, September.
  18. Smith, Clifford W. & Stulz, René M., 1985. "The Determinants of Firms' Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(04), pages 391-405, December.
  19. S. Waite Rawls & Charles W. Smithson, 1990. "Strategic Risk Management," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 2(4), pages 6-18.
  20. Gordon M. Bodnar & Gregory S. Hayt & Richard C. Marston, 1998. "1998 Wharton Survey of Financial Risk Management by US Non-Financial Firms," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 27(4), Winter.
  21. John M. Griffin & Rene M. Stulz, 1997. "International Competition and Exchange Rate Shocks: A Cross-Country Industry Analysis of Stock Returns," NBER Working Papers 6243, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Chen, Cherry C. & So, Raymond W., 2002. "Exchange rate variability and the riskiness of US multinational firms: evidence from the Asian financial turmoil," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 12(4-5), pages 411-428.
  23. Williamson, Rohan, 2001. "Exchange rate exposure and competition: evidence from the automotive industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 441-475, March.
  24. Fatemi, Ali M. & Tavakkol, Amir & Dukas, Stephen P., 1996. "Foreign exchange exposure and the pricing of exchange rate risk," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 169-189.
  25. Guay, Wayne & Kothari, S. P, 2003. "How much do firms hedge with derivatives?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 423-461, December.
  26. Jane Ihrig, 2001. "Exchange-rate exposure of multinationals: focusing on exchange-rate issues," International Finance Discussion Papers 709, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  27. Söhnke M. Bartram & Gregory W. Brown & Frank R. Fehle, 2009. "International Evidence on Financial Derivatives Usage," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 38(1), pages 185-206, 03.
  28. Crabb, Peter R., 2002. "Multinational corporations and hedging exchange rate exposure," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 299-314.
  29. Gordon M. Bodnar & M.H. Franco Wong, 2003. "Estimating Exchange Rate Exposures: Issues in Model Structure," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 32(1), Spring.
  30. Bodnar, Gordon M. & Gentry, William M., 1993. "Exchange rate exposure and industry characteristics: evidence from Canada, Japan, and the USA," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 29-45, February.
  31. Gregory Koutmos & Anna D. Martin, 2003. "First- and Second-Moment Exchange Rate Exposure: Evidence from U.S. Stock Returns," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 38(3), pages 455-471, 08.
  32. Doidge, Craig & Griffin, John & Williamson, Rohan, 2006. "Measuring the economic importance of exchange rate exposure," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(4-5), pages 550-576, October.
  33. Prasad, Anita Mehra & Rajan, Murli, 1995. "The role of exchange and interest risk in equity valuation: A comparative study of international stock markets," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 47(5), pages 457-472, December.
  34. Christos Pantzalis & Betty J Simkins & Paul A Laux, 2001. "Operational Hedges and the Foreign Exchange Exposure of U.S. Multinational Corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 32(4), pages 793-812, December.
  35. Dominguez, Kathryn M.E. & Tesar, Linda L., 2006. "Exchange rate exposure," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 188-218, January.
  36. Shin, Hyun-Han & Soenen, Luc, 1999. "Exposure to currency risk by US multinational corporations," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 195-207, March.
  37. Ibrahimi, Fatemeh & Oxelheim, Lars & Wihlborg, Clas, 1989. "International Stock Markets and Fluctuations in Exchange Rates and Other Macroeconomic Variables," Working Paper Series 244, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  38. Brown, Gregory W., 2001. "Managing foreign exchange risk with derivatives," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 401-448, May.
  39. Di Iorio, Amalia & Faff, Robert, 2000. "An analysis of asymmetry in foreign currency exposure of the Australian equities market," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 133-159, June.
  40. Bessembinder, Hendrik, 1991. "Forward Contracts and Firm Value: Investment Incentive and Contracting Effects," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(04), pages 519-532, December.
  41. Allayannis, George & Ofek, Eli, 2001. "Exchange rate exposure, hedging, and the use of foreign currency derivatives," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 273-296, April.
  42. Jongmoo Jay Choi & Anita Mehra Prasad, 1995. "Exchange Risk Sensitivity and Its Determinants: A Firm and Industry Analysis of U.S. Multinationals," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 24(3), Fall.
  43. Gao, Ting, 2000. "Exchange rate movements and the profitability of U.S. multinationals," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 117-134, February.
  44. Doukas, John & Hall, Patricia H. & Lang, Larry H. P., 1999. "The pricing of currency risk in Japan," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 1-20, January.
  45. Timothy A Luehrman, 1991. "Exchange Rate Changes and the Distribution of Industry Value," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 22(4), pages 619-649, December.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eme:mfipps:v:33:y:2007:i:9:p:642-666. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Louise Lister)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.