IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eme/jespps/v43y2016i1p141-164.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The role of lifelong learning on political stability and non violence: evidence from Africa

Author

Listed:
  • Simplice A. Asongu
  • Jacinta C. Nwachukwu

Abstract

Purpose - – Education as a weapon in the fight against conflict and violence remains widely debated in policy and academic circles. Against the background of growing political instability in Africa and the central role of the knowledge economy in twenty-first century development, this paper provides three contributions to existing literature. The purpose of this paper is to assess how political stability/non-violence is linked to the incremental, synergy and lifelong learning effects of education. Design/methodology/approach - – The authors define lifelong learning as the combined knowledge acquired during primary, secondary and tertiary education. Principal component analysis is used to reduce the dimensions of educational and political indicators. An endogeneity robust dynamic system Generalized Methods of Moments is used for the estimations. Findings - – The authors establish three main findings. First, education is a useful weapon in the fight against political instability. Second, there is an incremental effect of education in the transition from secondary to tertiary schools. Third, lifelong learning also has positive and synergy effects. This means that the impact of lifelong learning is higher than the combined independent effects of various educational levels. The empirical evidence is based on 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. Practical implications - – A plethora of policy implications are discussed, inter alia: how the drive towards increasing the knowledge economy through lifelong learning can be an effective tool in the fight against violence and political insurgency in Africa. Originality/value - – As the continent is nursing knowledge economy ambitions, the paper is original in investigating the determinants of political stability/non-violence from three dimensions of education attainment: the incremental, the lifelong learning and a synergy effect.

Suggested Citation

  • Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu, 2016. "The role of lifelong learning on political stability and non violence: evidence from Africa," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 43(1), pages 141-164, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eme:jespps:v:43:y:2016:i:1:p:141-164
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/JES-06-2014-0087?utm_campaign=RePEc&WT.mc_id=RePEc
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. repec:eee:touman:v:35:y:2013:i:c:p:59-69 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Simplice A. Asongu, 2013. "How has Mobile Phone Penetration Stimulated Financial Development in Africa?," Journal of African Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 7-18, April.
    3. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    4. Mwangi wa Githinji & Olugbenga Adesida, 2011. "Industrialization, Exports and the Developmental State in Africa: The Case for Transformation," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers 2011-18, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
    5. Kim, Yee Kyoung & Lee, Keun & Park, Walter G. & Choo, Kineung, 2012. "Appropriate intellectual property protection and economic growth in countries at different levels of development," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 358-375.
    6. Nguena Christian Lambert & Tsafack Nanfosso Roger, 2014. "On the Sensitivity of Banking Activity Shocks: Evidence from the CEMAC Sub-region," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(1), pages 354-372.
    7. Antonio R Andres & Simplice A Asongu, 2013. "Global dynamic timelines for IPRs harmonization against software piracy," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(1), pages 874-880.
    8. Asongu, Simplice, 2013. "Mobile banking and mobile phone penetration: which is more pro-poor in Africa?," MPRA Paper 56800, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Magnus Saxegaard, 2006. "Excess Liquidity and Effectiveness of Monetary Policy; Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 06/115, International Monetary Fund.
    10. Voxi Heinrich Amavilah, 2009. "Knowledge of African countries: production and value of doctoral dissertations," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(8), pages 977-989.
    11. Naci Mocan, 2008. "What Determines Corruption? International Evidence From Microdata," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 46(4), pages 493-510, October.
    12. Simplice A Asongu, 2013. "Modeling the future of knowledge economy: evidence from SSA and MENA countries," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(1), pages 612-624.
    13. Simplice Asongu & Oasis Kodila-Tedika, 2016. "Fighting African conflicts and crimes: which governance tools matter?," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 43(5), pages 466-485, May.
    14. Vanessa Simen Tchamyou, 2017. "The Role of Knowledge Economy in African Business," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(4), pages 1189-1228, December.
    15. Daniel Lederman & Norman V. Loayza & Rodrigo R. Soares, 2005. "Accountability And Corruption: Political Institutions Matter," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17, pages 1-35, March.
    16. Yaw Nyarko & Kwabena Gyimah-Brempon, 2011. "Social Safety Nets: The Role of Education, Remittances and Migration," RSCAS Working Papers 2011/26, European University Institute.
    17. Simplice A Asongu, 2012. "On the effect of foreign aid on corruption," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 32(3), pages 2174-2180.
    18. Simplice Asongu, 2013. "Harmonizing IPRs on Software Piracy: Empirics of Trajectories in Africa," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 118(1), pages 45-60, November.
    19. Simplice A Asongu & Jellal Mohamed, 2013. "On the channels of foreign aid to corruption," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(3), pages 2191-2201.
    20. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    21. Fosu, Augustin K. (ed.), 2013. "Achieving Development Success: Strategies and Lessons from the Developing World," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199671557.
    22. Simplice A. Asongu, 2014. "Knowledge Economy and Financial Sector Competition in African Countries," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 26(2), pages 333-346, June.
    23. Simplice Asongu, 2015. "Fighting Software Piracy in Africa: How Do Legal Origins and IPRs Protection Channels Matter?," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 6(4), pages 682-703, December.
    24. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "Globalization (fighting), corruption and development: How are these phenomena linearly and nonlinearly related in wealth effects?," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(3), pages 346-369, May.
    25. Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina, 2009. "Tunisia's Development Experience: A Success Story?," WIDER Working Paper Series 032, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    26. Asongu, Simplice A. & Kodila-Tedika, Oasis, 2013. "Crime and conflicts in Africa: consequences of corruption?," European Economic Letters, European Economics Letters Group, vol. 2(2), pages 50-55.
    27. Thierry PENARD & Nicolas POUSSING & Gabriel ZOMO YEBE & Philémon NSI ELLA, 2012. "Comparing the Determinants of Internet and Cell Phone Use in Africa: Evidence from Gabon," Communications & Strategies, IDATE, Com&Strat dept., vol. 1(86), pages 65-83, 2nd quart.
    28. Simplice A Asongu, 2013. "The ‘Knowledge Economy'-finance nexus: how do IPRs matter in SSA and MENA countries?," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(1), pages 78-94.
    29. Jenny C. Aker & Isaac M. Mbiti, 2010. "Mobile Phones and Economic Development in Africa," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 24(3), pages 207-232, Summer.
    30. Fosu, Augustin K. (ed.), 2012. "Development Success: Historical Accounts from More Advanced Countries," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199660704.
    31. Lee, Keun & Kim, Byung-Yeon, 2009. "Both Institutions and Policies Matter but Differently for Different Income Groups of Countries: Determinants of Long-Run Economic Growth Revisited," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 533-549, March.
    32. Lin, Brian Chi-ang, 2006. "A sustainable perspective on the knowledge economy: A critique of Austrian and mainstream views," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 324-332, November.
    33. Lee, Keun, 2009. "How Can Korea be a Role Model for Catch-up Development?: A .Capability-based View," WIDER Working Paper Series 034, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    34. German, Laura & Stroud, Ann, 2007. "A Framework for the Integration of Diverse Learning Approaches: Operationalizing Agricultural Research and Development (R&D) Linkages in Eastern Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 792-814, May.
    35. Asongu, Simplice A., 2013. "On the effectiveness of foreign aid in institutional quality," European Economic Letters, European Economics Letters Group, vol. 2(1), pages 12-19.
    36. Asongu Simplice, 2011. "Government Quality Determinants of Stock Market Performance in African Countries," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 11/019, African Governance and Development Institute..
    37. repec:unu:wpaper:unupb3-2013 is not listed on IDEAS
    38. Henry Kaiser, 1974. "An index of factorial simplicity," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 39(1), pages 31-36, March.
    39. Fosu, Augustin Kwasi, 2012. "Development Success: Historical Accounts from More Advanced Countries," WIDER Working Paper Series 071, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    40. Truex, Rory, 2011. "Corruption, Attitudes, and Education: Survey Evidence from Nepal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 1133-1142, July.
    41. Antonio Andrés & Simplice Asongu, 2013. "Fighting Software Piracy: Which Governance Tools Matter in Africa?," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 118(3), pages 667-682, December.
    42. Yaw Nyarko, 2013. "Sustaining High Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Knowledge and the Structure of the Economy," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 22(suppl_1), pages -101, January.
    43. Philip Oreopoulos & Kjell G. Salvanes, 2009. "How large are returns to schooling? Hint: Money isn't everything," NBER Working Papers 15339, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    44. Sumberg, James, 2005. "Systems of innovation theory and the changing architecture of agricultural research in Africa," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 21-41, February.
    45. Nicholas Eubank, 2012. "Taxation, Political Accountability and Foreign Aid: Lessons from Somaliland," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(4), pages 465-480, March.
    46. repec:unu:wpaper:wp2012-71 is not listed on IDEAS
    47. Augustin Kwasi Fosu, 2010. "Africa's Economic Future: Learning from the Past," CESifo Forum, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 11(1), pages 62-71, April.
    48. Letiche, John M., 2006. "Positive economic incentives: New behavioral economics and successful economic transitions," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 775-796, November.
    49. Fosu, Augustin Kwasi, 2013. "Achieving Development Success: Strategies and Lessons from the Developing World," WIDER Working Paper Series 027, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    50. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    51. Lalountas, Dionisios A. & Manolas, George A. & Vavouras, Ioannis S., 2011. "Corruption, globalization and development: How are these three phenomena related?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 636-648, July.
    52. Zerbe, Noah, 2005. "Biodiversity, ownership, and indigenous knowledge: Exploring legal frameworks for community, farmers, and intellectual property rights in Africa," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 493-506, June.
    53. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Simplice A. Asongu & Oasis Kodila†Tedika, 2017. "Is Poverty in the African DNA (Gene)?," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 85(4), pages 533-552, December.
    2. Simplice A. Asongu & Voxi H. S. Amavilah & Antonio R. Andres, 2019. "Business Dynamics, Knowledge Economy, and the Economic Performance of African Countries," Research Africa Network Working Papers 19/004, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    3. Simplice A. Asongua & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Sara le Rouxa, 2018. "The Role of Inclusive Development and Military Expenditure in Modulating the Effect of Terrorism on Governance," Working Papers 2 4005, Office Of The Chief Economist, Development Bank of Nigeria.
    4. Simplice Asongu, 2015. "Determinants of Growth in Fast Developing Countries: Evidence from Bundling and Unbundling Institutions," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 15/010, African Governance and Development Institute..
    5. Asongu, Simplice A. & Odhiambo, Nicholas M., 2019. "Governance and social media in African countries: An empirical investigation," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 411-425.
    6. repec:spr:jknowl:v:9:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s13132-015-0322-z is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Simplice A. Asongu, 2018. "Conditional Determinants of Mobile Phones Penetration and Mobile Banking in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 9(1), pages 81-135, March.
    8. Asongu, Simplice & Nwachukwu, Jacinta, 2015. "Drivers of FDI in Fast Growing Developing Countries: Evidence from Bundling and Unbundling Governance," MPRA Paper 67294, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Simplice Asongu & Uchenna EFOBI & Ibukun BEECROFT, 2015. "FDI, Aid, Terrorism: Conditional Threshold Evidence from Developing Countries," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 15/019, African Governance and Development Institute..
    10. Simplice Asongu & Ivo Leke, 2018. "Can foreign aid dampen the threat of terrorism to international trade? Evidence from 78 developing countries," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 18/032, African Governance and Development Institute..
    11. Simplice A. Asongu & Vanessa S. Tchamyou, 2019. "Foreign Aid, Education and Lifelong Learning in Africa," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 10(1), pages 126-146, March.
    12. Simplice A. Asongu & Jacinta C. Nwachukwu & Nicholas Biekpe, 2018. "Foreign Aid, Terrorism and Growth: Conditional Evidence from Quantile Regression," AFEA Working Papers 18/038, African Finance and Economic Association (AFEA).
    13. Simplice Asongu & John Ssozi, 2017. "When is Foreign Aid Effective in Fighting Terrorism? Threshold Evidence," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(3), pages 370-389, July.
    14. Simplice Asongu & Jacinta Nwachukwu, 2017. "The Role of Openness in the Effect of ICT on Governance," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 17/050, African Governance and Development Institute..
    15. Simplice Asongu & Sara le Roux, 2018. "Understanding Sub-Saharan Africa’s Extreme Poverty Tragedy," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 18/012, African Governance and Development Institute..
    16. Simplice A. Asongu, 2017. "The Comparative Economics of Knowledge Economy in Africa: Policy Benchmarks, Syndromes, and Implications," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(2), pages 596-637, June.
    17. Asongu, Simplice A. & Nwachukwu, Jacinta C., 2017. "The Impact of Terrorism on Governance in African Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 253-270.
    18. Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "Natural Resource Exports, Foreign Aid and Terrorism," Working Papers 19/023, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
    19. Asongu, Simplice & Nwachukwu, Jacinta, 2015. "Foreign aid volatility and lifelong learning: demand-side empirics to a textual literature," MPRA Paper 67853, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Simplice A. Asongu & Sara le Roux, 2018. "Understanding Sub-Saharan Africa’s Extreme Poverty Tragedy," Research Africa Network Working Papers 18/012, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    21. Asongu, Simplice A. & Tchamyou, Vanessa S. & Minkoua N., Jules R. & Asongu, Ndemaze & Tchamyou, Nina P., 2018. "Fighting terrorism in Africa: Benchmarking policy harmonization," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 492(C), pages 1931-1957.
    22. repec:bla:annpce:v:90:y:2019:i:3:p:457-486 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Africa; Stability; Development; Lilfelong learning;

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eme:jespps:v:43:y:2016:i:1:p:141-164. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Virginia Chapman). General contact details of provider: http://www.emeraldinsight.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.