Exposure to pesticides, ill-health and averting behaviour: costs and determining the relationships
Purpose – Farmers' exposure to pesticides is high in developing countries. As a result many farmers suffer from ill-health, both short and long term. Deaths are not uncommon. Seeks to address this issue. Design/methodology/approach – Field survey data from Sri Lanka are used to estimate farmers' expenditure on defensive behaviour (DE) and to determine factors that influence DE. The avertive behaviour approach is used to estimate the costs. Tobit regression analysis is used to determine factors that influence DE. Findings – Field survey data show that farmers' expenditures on DE are low. This is inversely related to high incidence of ill health among farmers using pesticides. Originality/value – The results of this study are useful, not only for Sri Lanka, but also for many countries in South Asia, Africa and Latin America in reducing the current high levels of direct exposure to pesticides among farmers and farm workers using hand sprayers. Farmers' exposure to pesticides is a major occupational health hazard in these countries.
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Volume (Year): 32 (2005)
Issue (Month): 12 (December)
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References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Wilson, Clevo & Tisdell, Clement A., 2000.
"Why farmers continue to use pesticides despite environmental health and sustainability costs,"
Economics, Ecology and Environment Working Papers
48363, University of Queensland, School of Economics.
- Wilson, Clevo & Tisdell, Clem, 2001. "Why farmers continue to use pesticides despite environmental, health and sustainability costs," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 449-462, December.
- Maumbe, Blessing M. & Swinton, Scott M., 2003. "Hidden health costs of pesticide use in Zimbabwe's smallholder cotton growers," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 57(9), pages 1559-1571, November.
- Amemiya, Takeshi, 1984. "Tobit models: A survey," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 3-61.
- Antle, John M. & Cole, Donald C. & Crissman, Charles C., 1998.
"Further evidence on pesticides, productivity and farmer health: Potato production in Ecuador,"
Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists,
International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 18(2), March.
- Antle, John M. & Cole, Donald C. & Crissman, Charles C., 1998. "Further evidence on pesticides, productivity and farmer health: potato production in Ecuador," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 18(2), pages 199-207, March.
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