Coût du travail et emploi des jeunes
[eng] It is sometimes said that, in France, the extent of relative youth unemployment is due to the fact that there are no institutional methods, without considering the wide range of unemployment policies, that would enable to disconnect youth labour cost from adult labour cost. Such a disconnection may appear to be necessary in order to compensate for lower productivity, stemming from inexperience and a lack of training. The aim of this study is to give some elements to evaluate the macro- economic effects on may expect from a lowering of youth labour cost through a youth minimum wage or a specific reduction of employer's social contributions for young employed persons. Going through the theorical and empirical littérature gives the impression of a lot of uncertainties : empirical studies do not give precise answers to problems that are not solved by the theory regarding the impacts on employment and youth employment of the minimum wage. Empirical studies, curried out upon both North America and France, show results having poor robustness or even contradictory conclusions, especially concerning the present period. The present evaluation relies on the hypothesis of an elasticity of substitution between production factors (labour, capital but also between categories of the working population) equals to one. Our results confirm that the impact of both measures could be large as far as employment is concerned. Even if there is no massive solution to the nowadays worrying situation of the labour market, it seems that employment, especially youth employment, should be strongly stimulated. However, our results indicate that the total number of job creations is always less numerous than that of job creations for young persons. It means that the studied policies, even if they may improve the youth labour market, may have be detrimental for the adult labour market which would face job destructions. [fre] L'importance du chômage relatif des jeunes, en France, est parfois att
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