Repenser le soutien de la communauté internationale à l'Europe de l'Est
[eng] Rethinking on International Aids for Eastern Europe The transition of the Eastern European countries toward market economies will be longer and more difficult that what had been initially imagined. The collapse of the communist system was generally accompanied by violent therapies including price liberalisation and the opening to international trade. Meanwhile there was an attempt to put into place the actors and the institutions required by an open-market economy, particularly through ambitious privatisation programs. While these therapies first permitted a relative economic stabilization of the Eastern European countries, it quickly become clear that the interdependence which had been organized by the communist regime was initially underestimated. The economic disorganization caused by the collapse of the CAEM led to a sharp decline in trade, and to recessions that were more severe than had been forecast. No rapid recovery could then (or even now) be foreseen, due to the slow progress of structural reforms. The collapse of the communist administration also led to a loss of fiscal revenue. The ex-USSR, which least resembled a market economy, was therefore also the most affected. In this paper, we study mechanisms, especially monetary mechanisms, which could help Eastern Europeancountries to learn how to build an open-market economy, and how to solve the problems raised by economic integration, before they encounter international competition. If the success of the development programs for Eastern European countries requires access to western markets, the coordination among these programs needs to be improved. We thus describe the conditions and the means which would improve the efficiency of international aid. [fre] La transition des pays d'Europe de l'Est vers l'économie de marché sera plus longue et plus coûteuse qu'il n'était prévu à l'origine. En effet, l'effondrement du système communiste s'est accompagnée le plus souvent d'une thérapie de choc comprenant
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