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On the Equivalence of Taxes Paid by Employers and Employees


  • Picard, Pierre M
  • Toulemonde, Eric


In this paper we study the employment effects of a budget neutral restructuring of taxes levied on employers and employees. We derive conditions for taxes levied on workers to have the same employment effects as taxes levied on firms under standard processes of wage determination. Copyright 2001 by Scottish Economic Society.

Suggested Citation

  • Picard, Pierre M & Toulemonde, Eric, 2001. "On the Equivalence of Taxes Paid by Employers and Employees," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 48(4), pages 461-470, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:scotjp:v:48:y:2001:i:4:p:461-70

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    8. Terry Barker, 1999. "Achieving a 10% Cut in Europe's Carbon Dioxide Emissions using Additional Excise Duties: Coordinated, Uncoordinated and Unilateral Action using the Econometric Model E3ME," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(4), pages 401-422.
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    10. De Bruyn, Sander M., 1997. "Explaining the environmental Kuznets curve: structural change and international agreements in reducing sulphur emissions," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(04), pages 485-503, November.
    11. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    12. Agras, Jean & Chapman, Duane, 1999. "A dynamic approach to the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 267-277, February.
    13. Aunan, Kristin & Fang, Jinghua & Vennemo, Haakon & Oye, Kenneth & Seip, Hans M., 2004. "Co-benefits of climate policy--lessons learned from a study in Shanxi, China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 567-581, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. João Ricardo Faria, 2004. "The Effects Of Taxes On Labour In A Dynamic Efficiency Wage Model," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 55(3), pages 286-297.
    2. Tomas Kögel, 2005. "On Substituting Consumption Taxes for Unemployment Insurance Contributions to Reduce Unemployment," Discussion Paper Series 2005_11, Department of Economics, Loughborough University, revised Sep 2005.
    3. repec:dgr:rugccs:200409 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Heijdra, Ben J. & Ligthart, Jenny E., 2004. "Labor tax reform and equilibrium unemployment: a search and matching approach," CCSO Working Papers 200409, University of Groningen, CCSO Centre for Economic Research.
    5. Goerke, Laszlo, 2002. "On dismissal pay," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 497-512, September.
    6. Riedl, Arno & Tyran, Jean-Robert, 2005. "Tax liability side equivalence in gift-exchange labor markets," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(11-12), pages 2369-2382, December.
    7. repec:wly:econjl:v:127:y:2017:i:604:p:2187-2215 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Martin Weiss, 2009. "Higher Tax Rates on Labor? Evidence from German Panel Data," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 65(1), pages 73-92, March.
    9. Pierre M. Picard & Éric Toulemonde, 2001. "De quel côté du marché du travail prélever les impôts ?. Nouveaux éléments théoriques," Reflets et perspectives de la vie économique, De Boeck Université, vol. 0(1), pages 149-156.
    10. Van der Linden, Bruno, 1998. "Fighting unemployment without worsening povety: Basic income versus reductions of social security contributions," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 1999028, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES), revised 00 Oct 1999.
    11. Patrick Fève & Julien Matheron & Jean-Guillaume Sahuc, 2010. "La TVA sociale : bonne ou mauvaise idée ?," Economie & Prévision, La Documentation Française, vol. 0(2), pages 1-19.
    12. Goerke, Laszlo, 2001. "Tax Evasion in a Unionised Economy," IZA Discussion Papers 382, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. José Ramón García & José Vicente Ríos, 2004. "Effects Of Tax Reforms In A Shirking Model With Union Bargaining," Working Papers. Serie AD 2004-42, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    14. García, José Ramón & Sala, Hector, 2008. "The tax system incidence on unemployment: A country-specific analysis for the OECD economies," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1232-1245, November.
    15. Matthias Weber & Arthur Schram, 2017. "The Non‐equivalence of Labour Market Taxes: A Real‐effort Experiment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 127(604), pages 2187-2215, September.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • H20 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - General
    • J38 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Public Policy


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