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Labor Utilization and Nonwage Labor Costs in a Disequilibrium Macro Framework


  • Entorf, Horst
  • Konig, Heinz
  • Pohlmeier, Winfried


The literature on labor utilization and nonwage labor costs is extended to incorporate recent approaches to macroeconomic disequilibrium modeling based on the "smoothing by aggregation" principle. This leads to a reformulation of the basic Sneessens-Dreze type model by treating employment and working hours as separate inputs. The inclusion of nonwage labor costs serves a double purpose: first, they represent a restriction in the profit-maximizing process and, second, they serve as a proxy for the fixity of labor. The results differ substantially from simulation studies that disregard the utilization of labor and the nonlinear structure of labor costs. Copyright 1992 by The editors of the Scandinavian Journal of Economics.

Suggested Citation

  • Entorf, Horst & Konig, Heinz & Pohlmeier, Winfried, 1992. " Labor Utilization and Nonwage Labor Costs in a Disequilibrium Macro Framework," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 94(1), pages 71-83.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:scandj:v:94:y:1992:i:1:p:71-83

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 2000. "The theory of endowment, intra-industry and multi-national trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 209-234, December.
    2. Rutherford, Thomas F., 1995. "Extension of GAMS for complementarity problems arising in applied economic analysis," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 19(8), pages 1299-1324, November.
    3. Paul Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 1995. "Globalization and the Inequality of Nations," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(4), pages 857-880.
    4. Masahisa Fujita & Paul Krugman & Anthony J. Venables, 2001. "The Spatial Economy: Cities, Regions, and International Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262561476, July.
    5. Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-499, June.
    6. Horstmann, Ignatius J. & Markusen, James R., 1992. "Endogenous market structures in international trade (natura facit saltum)," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1-2), pages 109-129, February.
    7. repec:hhs:iuiwop:430 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 1998. "Multinational firms and the new trade theory," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 183-203, December.
    9. Helpman, Elhanan, 1984. "A Simple Theory of International Trade with Multinational Corporations," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(3), pages 451-471, June.
    10. S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "A Simple Theory of Multinational Corporations and Trade with a Trade-Off Between Proximity and Concentration," NBER Working Papers 4269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Ignatius J. Horstmann & James R. Markusen, 1990. "Endogenous Market Structures in International Trade," NBER Working Papers 3283, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jennifer Hunt, 1998. "Hours Reductions as Work-Sharing," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 29(1), pages 339-381.
    2. Hans Gersbach & Hans Haller, 2012. "“Hard workers” and labor restrictions," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 25(2), pages 469-494, January.
    3. Thomas Bauer & Regina Riphahn, 2002. "Employment effects of payroll taxes - an empirical test for Germany," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(7), pages 865-876.
    4. Franz, Wolfgang, 1993. "Unvollkommene Arbeitsmärkte in makroökonomischen Modellen: Eine Übersicht," Discussion Papers 1, University of Konstanz, Center for International Labor Economics (CILE).
    5. Buscher, Herbert S. & Buslei, Hermann & Goggelmann, Klaus & Koschel, Henrike & Schmidt, Tobias F. N. & Steiner, Viktor & Winker, Peter, 2001. "Empirical macro models under test. A comparative simulation study of the employment effects of a revenue neutral cut in social security contributions," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 455-474, August.
    6. Smolny, Werner, 1995. "Employment and unemployment in Germany: Some results from a macroeconomic disequilibrium model," Discussion Papers, Series II 247, University of Konstanz, Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 178 "Internationalization of the Economy".
    7. Thalmaier, Anja, 1999. "Bestimmungsgründe von Fehlzeiten: Welche Rolle spielt die Arbeitslosigkeit?," IZA Discussion Papers 62, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    8. Axel Börsch-Supan, 2002. "Reduction of Working Time: Does it Decrease Unemployment?," MEA discussion paper series 02003, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
    9. Gersbach, Hans & Haller, Hans, 2005. "Beware of Workaholics: Household Preferences and Individual Equilibrium Utility," IZA Discussion Papers 1502, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Franz, Wolfgang & Profit, Stefan, 1994. "Wege aus der Unterbeschäftigung im Weissbuch der EU-Kommission: Eine kritische Würdigung," Discussion Papers 15, University of Konstanz, Center for International Labor Economics (CILE).
    11. de la Croix, David & Fagnart, Jean-Francois, 1995. "Underemployment of production factors in a forward-looking model," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 131-159, June.

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