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Structural Change in Factor Substitution in Finnish Manufacturing


  • Ilmakunnas, Pekka
  • Torma, Hannu


The possibility of structural change in Finnish factor substitution relations between energy and nonenergy factors is analyzed. The standard generalized Leontief KLEMF cost functions is modified so that the substitution parameters related to electricity and fuel factors may shift to new levels over time. The initial point of transition is 1974, during which the first energy crises took place. Likelihood ratio tests confirm that there has indeed been a statistically significant change in energy versus nonenergy substitution. The authors' estimates imply stronger substitutability for most input pairs after the energy crisis. Copyright 1989 by The editors of the Scandinavian Journal of Economics.

Suggested Citation

  • Ilmakunnas, Pekka & Torma, Hannu, 1989. " Structural Change in Factor Substitution in Finnish Manufacturing," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 91(4), pages 705-721.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:scandj:v:91:y:1989:i:4:p:705-21

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Roemer John E. & Silvestre Joaquim, 1993. "The Proportional Solution for Economies with Both Private and Public Ownership," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 426-444, April.
    2. Joaquin Silvestre, 1994. "Economic analysis of public ownership," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 18(1), pages 19-66, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Yazid Dissou & Reza Ghazal, 2010. "Energy Substitutability in Canadian Manufacturing Econometric Estimation with Bootstrap Confidence Intervals," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 121-148.
    2. Ruud de Mooij & A. Bovenberg, 1998. "Environmental Taxes, International Capital Mobility and Inefficient Tax Systems: Tax Burden vs. Tax Shifting," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 5(1), pages 7-39, February.
    3. Koetse, Mark J. & de Groot, Henri L.F. & Florax, Raymond J.G.M., 2008. "Capital-energy substitution and shifts in factor demand: A meta-analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2236-2251, September.
    4. Henriksson, Eva & Söderholm, Patrik & Wårell, Linda, 2012. "Industrial electricity demand and energy efficiency policy: The role of price changes and private R&D in the Swedish pulp and paper industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 437-446.
    5. Kim, Jihyo & Heo, Eunnyeong, 2013. "Asymmetric substitutability between energy and capital: Evidence from the manufacturing sectors in 10 OECD countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 81-89.
    6. Galetovic, Alexander & Muñoz, Cristián M., 2011. "Regulated electricity retailing in Chile," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 6453-6465, October.
    7. Lijesen, Mark G., 2007. "The real-time price elasticity of electricity," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 249-258, March.

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