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Human resources in China: the birth quota, returns to schooling, and migration

  • T. Paul Schultz

The rural elderly in China have 40% of the income of the urban elderly, spend a larger share of their income on food, are in worse health, work later into their lives and depend more on their children, lacking pensions and public services. The birth quota since 1980 has particularly restricted the childbearing of rural, less educated, women, who therefore have fewer children to rely on for support. This inequality is reinforced by increasing returns to schooling, especially beyond secondary school. Government restrictions on rural-urban migration reduces national efficiency, adds to the urban-rural wage gap and increases inequality. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

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Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Pacific Economic Review.

Volume (Year): 9 (2004)
Issue (Month): 3 (October)
Pages: 245-267

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Handle: RePEc:bla:pacecr:v:9:y:2004:i:3:p:245-267
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  1. Gary S. Becker & H. Gregg Lewis, 1974. "Interaction between Quantity and Quality of Children," NBER Chapters, in: Economics of the Family: Marriage, Children, and Human Capital, pages 81-90 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Byron, Rayond P & Manaloto, Evelyn Q, 1990. "Returns to Education in China," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(4), pages 783-96, July.
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