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Close Equals and Calculation of the Vertical, Horizontal and Reranking Effects of Taxation


  • van de Ven, Justin
  • Creedy, John
  • Lambert, Peter J


This paper examines the Gini-based method of decomposing the redistributive effect of taxation into vertical, horizontal, and reranking components. The consequences of different bandwidth choices, used to identify close-equals groups to estimate the horizontal effect, are discussed. Two opposing forces are identified which militate against choosing a very small or large bandwidth. It is suggested that the best procedure is to use the bandwidth that maximises the estimated vertical component, compute the reranking component exactly as a sample statistic and obtain the horizontal effect by subtraction. The technique is used to analyse the progressivity of tax and transfer payments in Australia. Copyright 2001 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd

Suggested Citation

  • van de Ven, Justin & Creedy, John & Lambert, Peter J, 2001. " Close Equals and Calculation of the Vertical, Horizontal and Reranking Effects of Taxation," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(3), pages 381-394, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:obuest:v:63:y:2001:i:3:p:381-94

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    7. Lawrence F. Katz & Alan B. Krueger, 1991. "Changes in the Structure of Wages in the Public and Private Sectors," Working Papers 662, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
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    Cited by:

    1. Ivica Urban & Peter J. Lambert, 2008. "Redistribution, Horizontal Inequity, and Reranking: How to Measure Them Properly," Public Finance Review, , vol. 36(5), pages 563-587, September.
    2. Justin Ven & Nicolas Hérault & Francisco Azpitarte, 2017. "Identifying tax implicit equivalence scales," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 15(3), pages 257-275, September.
    3. Paul Allanson, 2007. "Classical Horizontal Inequities in the Provision of Agricultural Income Support," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 29(4), pages 656-671.
    4. repec:eee:socmed:v:189:y:2017:i:c:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. William Griffiths, 2008. "On Dagum’s Decomposition of the Gini Coefficient," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 1054, The University of Melbourne.
    6. Achille VERNIZZI & Simone PELLEGRINO, 2007. "On the Aronson-Johnson-Lambert decomposition of the redistributive effect," Departmental Working Papers 2007-13, Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods at Università degli Studi di Milano, revised 26 Jun 2007.
    7. Bilger, Marcel, 2008. "Progressivity, horizontal inequality and reranking caused by health system financing: A decomposition analysis for Switzerland," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 1582-1593, December.
    8. Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad & Mataria, Awad & Luchini, Stéphane & Moatti, Jean-Paul, 2009. "Equity in health care finance in Palestine: The triple effects revealed," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 1071-1080, December.
    9. Mauro Mussini, 2014. "Decomposing inequality change from the perspective of reranking and income growth between income groups," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 619-637, September.
    10. Kinam Kim & Peter J. Lambert, 2009. "Redistributive Effect of U.S. Taxes and Public Transfers, 1994-2004," Public Finance Review, , vol. 37(1), pages 3-26, January.
    11. Wagstaff, Adam, 2005. "Decomposing changes in income inequality into vertical and horizontal redistribution and reranking, withapplications to China and Vietnam," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3559, The World Bank.
    12. Greselin, Francesca & Zitikis, Ricardas, 2015. "Measuring economic inequality and risk: a unifying approach based on personal gambles, societal preferences and references," MPRA Paper 65892, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. repec:gam:jecnmx:v:6:y:2018:i:1:p:4-:d:128699 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Essama-Nssah, B., 2008. "Assessing the redistributive effect of fiscal policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4592, The World Bank.
    15. Tabi Atemnkeng Johannes & Tafah Akwi & Peter Etoh Anzah, 2006. "The Distributive Impact of Fiscal Policy in Cameroon: Tax and Benefit Incidence," Working Papers PMMA 2006-16, PEP-PMMA.
    16. Donal O'Neill & Philippe Van Kerm, 2008. "An Integrated Framework For Analysing Income Convergence," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 76(1), pages 1-20, January.
    17. Ivica Urban, 2009. "Kakwani decomposition of redistributive effect: Origins, critics and upgrades," Working Papers 148, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • H22 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Incidence
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies


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