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A Theory of Limits on Corruption and Some Applications


  • Alam, M S


Corruption always creates winners and, nearly always, losers. The countervailing actions taken by losers to resist their losses from corruption form the centerpiece of this paper. After presenting some examples of countervailing actions, the author analyzes their forms, causes, and effects on corruption. Countervailing actions depend on global factors, such as the system of human, political, and property rights, which vary across societies and over time. They also depend on specific factors which vary across the subunits of government. Variations in global and specific factors, respectively, help to explain different levels of corruption across governments and their subunits. Copyright 1995 by WWZ and Helbing & Lichtenhahn Verlag AG

Suggested Citation

  • Alam, M S, 1995. "A Theory of Limits on Corruption and Some Applications," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(3), pages 419-435.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:kyklos:v:48:y:1995:i:3:p:419-35

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    Cited by:

    1. Evenett, Simon J & Hoekman, Bernard, 2004. "International Cooperation and the Reform of Public Procurement Policies," CEPR Discussion Papers 4663, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Clemens, Marius & Fuhrmann, Wilfried, 2008. "Rohstoffbasierte Staatsfonds: Theorie und Empirie
      [Resource-based sovereign wealth funds]
      ," MPRA Paper 16933, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Christopher Robertson & K. Gilley & William Crittenden, 2008. "Trade Liberalization, Corruption, and Software Piracy," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 78(4), pages 623-634, April.
    4. Michael Johnston, 2000. "Corruption et démocratie : menaces pour le développement, possibilités de réforme," Revue Tiers Monde, Programme National Persée, vol. 41(161), pages 117-142.
    5. Akhter, Syed H., 2004. "Is globalization what it's cracked up to be? Economic freedom, corruption, and human development," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 283-295, August.
    6. Helena Miloloza, 2015. "Distance Factors and Croatian Export Obstacles in the EU15: CAGE Approach," Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems - scientific journal, Croatian Interdisciplinary Society Provider Homepage:, vol. 13(3), pages 434-449.
    7. Mbate, Michael, 2015. "Who bears the burden of bribery? Evidence from Public Service Delivery in Kenya," MPRA Paper 71654, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Gobind M. Herani & Pervez Wasim & Allah Wasayo Rajar & Riaz Ahmed Shaikh, 2008. "The Nature of Poverty and Its Prospects: Pakistan Evidence," Journal of Global Economy, Research Centre for Social Sciences,Mumbai, India, vol. 4(3), pages 184-195, September.
    9. repec:zna:indecs:v:13:y:2015:i:2:p:434-449 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Gökhan R. Karahan & R. Morris Coats & William F. Shughart, 2009. "And the Beat Goes On: Further Evidence on Voting on the Form of County Governance in the Midst of Public Corruption," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(1), pages 65-84, February.
    11. Jennifer Chandler & John Graham, 2010. "Relationship-Oriented Cultures, Corruption, and International Marketing Success," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 92(2), pages 251-267, March.
    12. Jayoti Das & Cassandra E. DiRienzo, 2012. "Spatial Decay of Corruption in Africa and The Middle East," Economic Papers, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 31(4), pages 508-514, December.
    13. Susan-Rose Ackerman, 1997. "Corruption, Infefficiency and Economic Growth," Nordic Journal of Political Economy, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, vol. 24, pages 3-20.
    14. Naved Ahmad & Salman Arjumand, 2016. "Impact of corruption on GDP per capita through international migration: an empirical investigation," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 50(4), pages 1633-1643, July.
    15. Fadahunsi, Akin & Rosa, Peter, 2002. "Entrepreneurship and Illegality: Insights from the Nigerian cross-border Trade," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 397-429, September.
    16. Naved Ahmad, 2001. "Corruption Perception Indices: A Comparative Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 813-830.
    17. Runtian Jing & John L. Graham, 2008. "Values Versus Regulations: How Culture Plays Its Role," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 80(4), pages 791-806, July.
    18. Hella Engerer, 1998. "Ursachen, Folgen und Bekämpfung von Korruption: liefern ökonomische Ansätze bestechende Argumente?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 161, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    19. Hoekman, Bernard, 1998. "Using International Institutions to Improve Public Procurement," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 249-269, August.

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