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Re-examining Cointegration, Unit Roots and Efficiency in Foreign Exchange Rates


  • John P. Lajaunie

    (Associate Professor of Finance in the Department of Economics and Finance, Nicholls State University, Thiboduax, LA,)

  • Atsuyuki Naka


This paper examines the cointegrating relationships in seven foreign exchange rates for a sample period from 1974 to 1991 by utilizing Johansen's (1991) method. Three subperiods are also examined to confirm the intertemporal stability of the test results. In addition, subgroups of the seven exchange rates are analyzed to determine the consistency of the empirical results with respect to different dimensions in the system. We find that the test results are sensitive to the choice of test statistics, time trends, subperiods as well as subgroups. All results indicate either one or no cointegrating relationship exists. Further, we study time series properties of twenty one cross-currency rates and the corresponding exchange rates in terms of a common currency. None of cross-currency rates are stationary and hence the pairs of exchange rates are not cointegrated. Copyright Blackwell Publishers Ltd 1997.

Suggested Citation

  • John P. Lajaunie & Atsuyuki Naka, 1997. "Re-examining Cointegration, Unit Roots and Efficiency in Foreign Exchange Rates," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 363-374.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jbfnac:v:24:y:1997-04:i:3:p:363-374

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Baillie, Richard T & Bollerslev, Tim, 1989. " Common Stochastic Trends in a System of Exchange Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 167-181, March.
    2. DeJong, David N. & Whiteman, Charles H., 1991. "Reconsidering 'trends and random walks in macroeconomic time series'," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 221-254, October.
    3. repec:bla:restud:v:57:y:1990:i:1:p:99-125 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
    5. Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Cointegration in partial systems and the efficiency of single-equation analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 389-402, June.
    6. Hansen, Bruce E., 1992. "Efficient estimation and testing of cointegrating vectors in the presence of deterministic trends," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1-3), pages 87-121.
    7. Sephton, Peter S. & Larsen, Hans K., 1991. "Tests of exchange market efficiency: fragile evidence from cointegration tests," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 561-570, December.
    8. MacDonald, Ronald & Taylor, Mark P., 1989. "Foreign exchange market efficiency and cointegration : Some evidence from the recent float," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 63-68.
    9. Osterwald-Lenum, Michael, 1992. "A Note with Quantiles of the Asymptotic Distribution of the Maximum Likelihood Cointegration Rank Test Statistics," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 461-472, August.
    10. Hakkio, Craig S. & Rush, Mark, 1989. "Market efficiency and cointegration: an application to the sterling and deutschemark exchange markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 75-88, March.
    11. Dwyer, Gerald Jr. & Wallace, Myles S., 1992. "Cointegration and market efficiency," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 318-327, August.
    12. Diebold, Francis X & Gardeazabal, Javier & Yilmaz, Kamil, 1994. " On Cointegration and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(2), pages 727-735, June.
    13. Granger, Clive W J, 1986. "Developments in the Study of Cointegrated Economic Variables," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 48(3), pages 213-228, August.
    14. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-1580, November.
    15. Phillips, Peter C B & Ouliaris, S, 1990. "Asymptotic Properties of Residual Based Tests for Cointegration," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(1), pages 165-193, January.
    16. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
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    Cited by:

    1. Michael KUEHL, "undated". "Strong Comovements of Exchange Rates: Theoretical and Empirical Cases when Currencies Become the Same Asset," EcoMod2008 23800071, EcoMod.
    2. Aroskar, Raj & Sarkar, Salil K. & Swanson, Peggy E., 2004. "European foreign exchange market efficiency: Evidence based on crisis and noncrisis periods," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 333-347.
    3. Macide Cicek, 2014. "A Cointegration Test for Turkish Foreign Exchange Market Efficiency," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 4(4), pages 451-471, April.
    4. Kühl, Michael, 2007. "Cointegration in the foreign exchange market and market efficiency since the introduction of the Euro: Evidence based on bivariate cointegration analyses," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 68, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    5. repec:got:cegedp:68 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Kang, Heejoon, 2008. "The cointegration relationships among G-7 foreign exchange rates," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 446-460, June.
    7. Kühl, Michael, 2010. "Bivariate cointegration of major exchange rates, cross-market efficiency and the introduction of the Euro," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 1-19, January.
    8. Salehizadeh, Mehdi & Taylor, Robert, 1999. "A test of purchasing power parity for emerging economies," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 183-193, April.

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