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Money, Credit, and Business Fluctuations


  • Stiglitz, Joseph E


This paper provides a critique of standard theories of money, in particular those based on money as a medium of exchange. Money is important because of the relationship between money and credit. The process of judging credit worthiness, in which banks play a central role, involves the collection and processing of information. Like many other economic activities involving information, these processes are not well described by means of standard production functions. Changes in economic circumstances can have marked effects on the relevance of previously accumulated information and accordingly on the supply of credit. Changes in the availability of credit may have marked effects on the level of economic activity, while changes in real interest rates seem to play a relatively minor role in economic fluctuations. This alternative view has a number of implications for policy, both at the macro-economic level (for instance, on the role of monetary policy for stabilization purposes and the choice of targets) and at the micro-economic level.
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Suggested Citation

  • Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1988. "Money, Credit, and Business Fluctuations," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 64(187), pages 307-322, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:ecorec:v:64:y:1988:i:187:p:307-22

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bruce C. Greenwald & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1993. "Financial Market Imperfections and Business Cycles," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(1), pages 77-114.
    2. Greenwald, B & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1987. "Keynesian, New Keynesian and New Classical Economics," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(1), pages 119-133, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kromphardt, Jürgen, 1999. "Ansatzpunkte der Beschäftigungspolitik aus keynesianischer Sicht," Mitteilungen aus der Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany], vol. 32(4), pages 499-513.
    2. Jakob B Madsen & Sarah J Carrington, 2011. "Cycles and Corporate Investment: Direct Tests Using Survey Data on Banks’ Lending Practices," Monash Economics Working Papers 18-11, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    3. Steven Ongena, 1999. "Lending Relationships, Bank Default and Economic Activity," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2), pages 257-280.
    4. Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Shackleton, Mark B. & Wojakowski, Rafal M., 2011. "Participating mortgages and the efficiency of financial intermediation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 3042-3054, November.
    5. Georgios Argitis, 2008. "Finance, Investment and Macroeconomic Performance," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(1-2), pages 71-88.
    6. Sarah Carrington & Jakob B. Madsen, 2011. "House Prices, Credit and Willingness to Lend," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 87(279), pages 537-557, December.
    7. Smant, David / D.J.C., 2002. "Bank credit in the transmission of monetary policy: A critical review of the issues and evidence," MPRA Paper 19816, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Rohan Baxter, 1993. "The Loans Standard Model of Credit Money," Working Papers 93/183, Monash University, Department of Compter Studies.
    9. Merton, Robert C., 1995. "Financial innovation and the management and regulation of financial institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 461-481, June.
    10. Alejandro Diaz-Bautista & Julio R. Escandon, 2003. "A Simple Dynamic Model of Credit and Aggregate Demand," Macroeconomics 0308001, EconWPA.
    11. Jeffrey M. Lacker, 1991. "Why is there debt?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Jul, pages 3-19.
    12. Shiller, Robert J. & Wojakowski, Rafał M. & Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Shackleton, Mark B., 2013. "Mitigating financial fragility with Continuous Workout Mortgages," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 269-285.
    13. Madsen, Jakob B. & Carrington, Sarah J., 2012. "Credit cycles and corporate investment: Direct tests using survey data on banks’ lending practices," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 429-440.
    14. repec:iab:iabmit:v:32:i:4:p:499-513 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Phil Bodman, "undated". "Are the Effects of Monetary Policy Asymmetric in Australia?," MRG Discussion Paper Series 0406, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.

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