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Industrial Clusters: Equilibrium, Welfare and Policy

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  • Victor D. Norman
  • Anthony J. Venables

Abstract

This paper studies the size and number of industrial clusters that arise in a multi-country world in which one sector has a propensity to cluster because of increasing returns to scale. Equilibrium will generally have smaller clusters than the world welfare optimum, and possibly too many countries with a cluster. Countries have an incentive to use policy to attract an industrial cluster, but the equilibrium of the policy game between governments coincides with the world optimum so there is no 'race to the bottom'. Capping subsidy rates would lead to a proliferation of too many and too small clusters. Copyright (c) The London School of Economics and Political Science 2004.

Suggested Citation

  • Victor D. Norman & Anthony J. Venables, 2004. "Industrial Clusters: Equilibrium, Welfare and Policy," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 71(284), pages 543-558, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:econom:v:71:y:2004:i:284:p:543-558
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. James R. Markusen & James R. Melvin, 1981. "Trade, Factor Prices, and the Gains from Trade with Increasing Returns to Scale," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 14(3), pages 450-469, August.
    2. Kind, Hans Jarle & Knarvik, Karen Helene Midelfart & Schjelderup, Guttorm, 2000. "Competing for capital in a 'lumpy' world," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 253-274, November.
    3. Henderson, J V, 1974. "The Sizes and Types of Cities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(4), pages 640-656, September.
    4. Baldwin, Richard E. & Krugman, Paul, 2004. "Agglomeration, integration and tax harmonisation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 1-23, February.
    5. Collie, David R., 2000. "State aid in the European Union: The prohibition of subsidies in an integrated market," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 867-884, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kurt A. Hafner, 2011. "Trade Liberalization and Technology Diffusion," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(5), pages 963-978, November.
    2. Brenner Thomas, 2008. "Cluster dynamics and policy implications," Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie, De Gruyter, vol. 52(1), pages 146-162, October.
    3. Forslid, Rikard & Midelfart, Karen Helene, 2005. "Internationalisation, industrial policy and clusters," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 197-213, May.
    4. Chincarini, Ludwig & Asherie, Neer, 2008. "An analytical model for the formation of economic clusters," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 252-270, May.
    5. repec:got:cegedp:31 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Bush, Oliver & Knott, Samuel & Peacock, Chris, 2014. "Why is the UK banking system so big and is that a problem?," Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, Bank of England, vol. 54(4), pages 385-395.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation

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