IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/ecnote/v33y2004i3p325-357.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Measuring and Optimizing Portfolio Credit Risk: A Copula-based Approach

Author

Listed:
  • Annalisa Di Clemente
  • Claudio Romano

Abstract

In this work, we present a methodology for measuring and optimizing the credit risk of a loan portfolio taking into account the non-normality of the credit loss distribution. In particular, we aim at modelling accurately joint default events for credit assets. In order to achieve this goal, we build the loss distribution of the loan portfolio by Monte Carlo simulation. The times until default of each obligor in portfolio are simulated following a copula-based approach. In particular, we study four different types of dependence structure for the credit assets in portfolio: the Gaussian copula, the Student's t-copula, the grouped t-copula and the Clayton n-copula (or Cook-Johnson copula). Our aim is to assess the impact of each type of copula on the value of different portfolio risk measures, such as expected loss, maximum loss, credit value at risk and expected shortfall. In addition, we want to verify whether and how the optimal portfolio composition may change utilizing various types of copula for describing the default dependence structure. In order to optimize portfolio credit risk, we minimize the conditional value at risk, a risk measure both relevant and tractable, by solving a simple linear programming problem subject to the traditional constraints of balance, portfolio expected return and trading. The outcomes, in terms of optimal portfolio compositions, obtained assuming different default dependence structures are compared with each other. The solution of the risk minimization problem may suggest us how to restructure the inefficient loan portfolios in order to obtain their best risk/return profile. In the absence of a developed secondary market for loans, we may follow the investment strategies indicated by the solution vector by utilizing credit default swaps. Copyright Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, 2004

Suggested Citation

  • Annalisa Di Clemente & Claudio Romano, 2004. "Measuring and Optimizing Portfolio Credit Risk: A Copula-based Approach," Economic Notes, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, vol. 33(3), pages 325-357, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:ecnote:v:33:y:2004:i:3:p:325-357
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=synergy&synergyAction=showTOC&journalCode=ecno&volume=33&issue=3&year=2004&part=null
    File Function: link to full text
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hannan, Timothy H., 1991. "Bank commercial loan markets and the role of market structure: evidence from surveys of commercial lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 133-149, February.
    2. Berger, Allen N. & Klapper, Leora F. & Udell, Gregory F., 2001. "The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2127-2167, December.
    3. Berger, Allen N. & Black, Lamont K., 2011. "Bank size, lending technologies, and small business finance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 724-735, March.
    4. benvenuti, m. & casolaro, l. & del prete, s. & mistrulli, p. e., 2010. "Loan Officer Authority and Small Business Lending.Evidence from a survey," MPRA Paper 26475, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Cole, Rebel A. & Goldberg, Lawrence G. & White, Lawrence J., 2004. "Cookie Cutter vs. Character: The Micro Structure of Small Business Lending by Large and Small Banks," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(02), pages 227-251, June.
    6. de la Torre, Augusto & Martínez Pería, María Soledad & Schmukler, Sergio L., 2010. "Bank involvement with SMEs: Beyond relationship lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 2280-2293, September.
    7. Sharpe, Steven A, 1990. " Asymmetric Information, Bank Lending, and Implicit Contracts: A Stylized Model of Customer Relationships," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1069-1087, September.
    8. Degryse, Hans & Van Cayseele, Patrick, 2000. "Relationship Lending within a Bank-Based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 90-109, January.
    9. Strahan, Philip E. & Weston, James P., 1998. "Small business lending and the changing structure of the banking industry1," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6-8), pages 821-845, August.
    10. Barone, Guglielmo & Felici, Roberto & Pagnini, Marcello, 2011. "Switching costs in local credit markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 694-704.
    11. Berger, Allen N. & Miller, Nathan H. & Petersen, Mitchell A. & Rajan, Raghuram G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2005. "Does function follow organizational form? Evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-269, May.
    12. Uchida, Hirofumi & Udell, Gregory F. & Yamori, Nobuyoshi, 2012. "Loan officers and relationship lending to SMEs," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 97-122.
    13. Hirofumi Uchida & Gregory F. Udell & Wako Watanabe, 2008. "Bank Size and Lending Relationships in Japan," NBER Chapters,in: Organizational Innovation and Firm Performance, pages 242-267 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. David Carter & James McNulty & James Verbrugge, 2004. "Do Small Banks have an Advantage in Lending? An Examination of Risk-Adjusted Yields on Business Loans at Large and Small Banks," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 233-252, April.
    15. Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Information Production and Capital Allocation: Decentralized versus Hierarchical Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 1891-1921, October.
    16. Allen N. Berger & Gregory F. Udell, 2002. "Small Business Credit Availability and Relationship Lending: The Importance of Bank Organisational Structure," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(477), pages 32-53, February.
    17. Craig, Steven G. & Hardee, Pauline, 2007. "The impact of bank consolidation on small business credit availability," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 1237-1263, April.
    18. Delgado, J. & Salas, V. & Saurina, J., 2007. "Joint size and ownership specialization in bank lending," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(12), pages 3563-3583, December.
    19. Ongena, Steven & Şendeniz-Yüncü, İlkay, 2011. "Which firms engage small, foreign, or state banks? And who goes Islamic? Evidence from Turkey," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 3213-3224.
    20. Allen Berger, 2006. "Potential Competitive Effects of Basel II on Banks in SME Credit Markets in the United States," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 29(1), pages 5-36, February.
    21. Vasso Ioannidou & Steven Ongena, 2010. ""Time for a Change": Loan Conditions and Bank Behavior when Firms Switch Banks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(5), pages 1847-1877, October.
    22. Montoriol-Garriga, Judit, 2008. "Bank mergers and lending relationships," Working Paper Series 934, European Central Bank.
    23. Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. " Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-1400, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Desislava Chetalova & Marcel Wollschlager & Rudi Schafer, 2015. "Dependence structure of market states," Papers 1503.09004, arXiv.org, revised Jul 2015.
    2. Boubaker, Heni & Sghaier, Nadia, 2013. "Portfolio optimization in the presence of dependent financial returns with long memory: A copula based approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 361-377.
    3. Kakouris, Iakovos & Rustem, Berç, 2014. "Robust portfolio optimization with copulas," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 235(1), pages 28-37.
    4. Maldonado, Diego & Pazmiño, Mariela, 2008. "Nuevas Herramientas para la Administración del Riesgo Crediticio: El caso de una Cartera Crediticia Ecuatoriana
      [New Management Tool for Credit Risk analysis: An aplication for Financial Institutio
      ," MPRA Paper 17163, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 30 Dec 2008.
    5. Nguyen, Tristan & Molinari, Robert Danilo, 2009. "Quantifizierung von Abhängigkeitsstrukturen zwischen Risiken in Versicherungsunternehmen," German Risk and Insurance Review (GRIR), University of Cologne, Department of Risk Management and Insurance, vol. 5(2), pages 28-52.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:ecnote:v:33:y:2004:i:3:p:325-357. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0391-5026 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.