IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/asi/aeafrj/2016p457-476.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Asias Reserve Accumulation: Part of a New Paradigm

Author

Listed:
  • Florian Brugger

    (University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Universitätsstraße 15 Bauteil G/IV Austria)

Abstract

So far, various contributions have failed to explain Asia?s fat foreign currency reserve accumulation. In this paper, I analyze reserve holding decisions in a wider social, political, and economic context. Using Weber?s heuristic of ideas and interests as determinants of actions, I show that Asian countries? reserve accumulation is caused by a paradigm shift. In Asia?s former Development State paradigm, accumulation of huge reserves was not of central importance because of closed and heavily regulated financial markets. After the Development State paradigm had collapsed in the 1980s, a new paradigm was built around the ideas of liberalism, the unconditional avoidance of any further financial crisis, and high employment. In order to harmonize the requests of liberal politics and open financial markets in addition to ?full? employment driven by export-led growth and the avoidance of further crises, hoarding reserves was a suitable strategy.

Suggested Citation

  • Florian Brugger, 2016. "Asias Reserve Accumulation: Part of a New Paradigm," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 6(8), pages 457-476, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:asi:aeafrj:2016:p:457-476
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.aessweb.com/download.php?id=3482
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://www.aessweb.com/journals/5002/August2016
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ricardo J. Caballero & Emmanuel Farhi & Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas, 2008. "An Equilibrium Model of "Global Imbalances" and Low Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(1), pages 358-393, March.
    2. Martin Feldstein, 1999. "Self-Protection for Emerging Market Economies," NBER Working Papers 6907, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Michael P. Dooley & David Folkerts-Landau & Peter Garber, 2004. "The revived Bretton Woods system," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(4), pages 307-313.
    4. Olivier Jeanne & Romain Rancière, 2011. "The Optimal Level of International Reserves For Emerging Market Countries: A New Formula and Some Applications," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(555), pages 905-930, September.
    5. Yin‐Wong Cheung & Xingwang Qian, 2009. "Hoarding of International Reserves: Mrs Machlup's Wardrobe and the Joneses," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 824-843, September.
    6. Yin-Wong Cheung & Hiro Ito, 2009. "A Cross-Country Empirical Analysis of International Reserves," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(4), pages 447-481.
    7. Booth, Anne, 1999. "Initial Conditions and Miraculous Growth: Why is South East Asia Different From Taiwan and South Korea?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 301-321, February.
    8. Joshua Aizenman & Jaewoo Lee, 2007. "International Reserves: Precautionary Versus Mercantilist Views, Theory and Evidence," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 191-214, April.
    9. Dani Rodrik & Andres Velasco, 1999. "Short-Term Capital Flows," NBER Working Papers 7364, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Steiner, Andreas, 2014. "Reserve accumulation and financial crises: From individual protection to systemic risk," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 126-144.
    11. Angus Maddison, 2006. "Asia in the World Economy 1500-2030 AD," Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, The Australian National University, vol. 20, pages 1-37, November.
    12. Alexander D. Rothenberg & Francis E. Warnock, 2011. "Sudden Flight and True Sudden Stops," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 509-524, August.
    13. Graciela Kaminsky & Saul Lizondo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1998. "Leading Indicators of Currency Crises," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(1), pages 1-48, March.
    14. Alan M. Taylor, 2013. "The Future of International Liquidity and the Role of China," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 25(2), pages 86-94, June.
    15. Joshua Aizenman & Jaewoo Lee, 2008. "Financial versus Monetary Mercantilism: Long‐run View of Large International Reserves Hoarding," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(5), pages 593-611, May.
    16. Anne-Laure Delatte & Julien Fouquau, 2012. "What drove the massive hoarding of international reserves? A time-varying approach," Post-Print hal-00822294, HAL.
    17. Bertaut, Carol & DeMarco, Laurie Pounder & Kamin, Steven & Tryon, Ralph, 2012. "ABS inflows to the United States and the global financial crisis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 219-234.
    18. Luis-Fernando Mejía & Guillermo A. Calvo & Alejandro Izquierdo, 2004. "On the empirics of Sudden Stops: the relevance of balance-sheet effects," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Jun.
    19. Anne‐Laure Delatte & Julien Fouquau, 2012. "What Drove the Massive Hoarding of International Reserves in Emerging Economies? A Time‐varying Approach," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(1), pages 164-176, February.
    20. Calvo, Guillermo A, 1996. "Capital Flows and Macroeconomic Management: Tequila Lessons," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(3), pages 207-223, July.
    21. Beltran, Daniel O. & Kretchmer, Maxwell & Marquez, Jaime & Thomas, Charles P., 2013. "Foreign holdings of U.S. Treasuries and U.S. Treasury yields," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 1120-1143.
    22. repec:fip:fedgsq:y:2005:i:mar10 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2009. "Global imbalances and the financial crisis: products of common causes," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Oct, pages 131-172.
    24. Joshua Aizenman, 2008. "Large Hoarding Of International Reserves And The Emerging Global Economic Architecture," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 76(5), pages 487-503, September.
    25. Niall Ferguson & Moritz Schularick, 2011. "The End of Chimerica," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(1), pages 1-26, April.
    26. Raghuram G. Rajan, 2010. "Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 9111, April.
    27. N/A, 2006. "The World Economy," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 198(1), pages 10-35, October.
    28. N/A, 2006. "The World Economy," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 195(1), pages 9-33, January.
    29. N/A, 2006. "The World Economy," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 197(1), pages 8-31, January.
    30. N/A, 2006. "The World Economy," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 196(1), pages 10-35, April.
    31. Diego Bastourre & Jorge Carrera & Javier Ibarlucia, 2009. "What is Driving Reserve Accumulation? A Dynamic Panel Data Approach," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 861-877, September.
    32. Ben S. Bernanke, 2005. "The global saving glut and the U.S. current account deficit," Speech 77, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    33. Mohamed Ariff & Ahmed M. Khalid, 2005. "Liberalization and Growth in Asia," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 2909.
    34. Avner Bar‐Ilan & Nancy P. Marion, 2009. "A Macroeconomic Perspective on Reserve Accumulation," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 802-823, September.
    35. Thomas Palley, 2007. "The Fallacy of the Revised Bretton Woods Hypothesis: Why Today's Global Financial System Is Unsustainable and Suggestions for a Replacement," International Journal of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(4), pages 36-52.
    36. Olivier Jeanne, 2007. "International Reserves in Emerging Market Countries: Too Much of a Good Thing?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 38(1), pages 1-80.
    37. Ian Holliday, 2000. "Productivist Welfare Capitalism: Social Policy in East Asia," Political Studies, Political Studies Association, vol. 48(4), pages 706-723, September.
    38. Jason Furman & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1998. "Economic Crises: Evidence and Insights from East Asia," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 29(2), pages 1-136.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Florian Brugger, 2015. "Asia’s Reserve Accumulation: Part of a New Paradigm," Working Paper Series, Social and Economic Sciences 2015-03, Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences, Karl-Franzens-University Graz.
    2. Jäger, Kai, 2016. "The Role of Regime Type in the Political Economy of Foreign Reserve Accumulation," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 79-96.
    3. Dongwon Lee, 2020. "International Cooperation in Foreign Reserve Policies in the Presence of Competitive Hoarding," Working Papers 202011, University of California at Riverside, Department of Economics.
    4. Anne‐Laure Delatte & Julien Fouquau, 2012. "What Drove the Massive Hoarding of International Reserves in Emerging Economies? A Time‐varying Approach," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(1), pages 164-176, February.
    5. Jung, Kuk Mo & Pyun, Ju Hyun, 2016. "International reserves for emerging economies: A liquidity approach," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 230-257.
    6. Atish R. Ghosh & Jonathan D. Ostry & Charalambos G. Tsangarides, 2017. "Shifting Motives: Explaining the Buildup in Official Reserves in Emerging Markets Since the 1980s," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 65(2), pages 308-364, June.
    7. Ghosh, Atish R. & Ostry, Jonathan D. & Tsangarides, Charalambos G., 2014. "Accounting for emerging market countries' international reserves: Are Pacific Rim countries different?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(PA), pages 52-82.
    8. Ms. Rina Bhattacharya & Ms. Mwanza Nkusu & Katja Mann, 2018. "Estimating the Demand for Reserve Assets Across Diverse Groups," IMF Working Papers 2018/047, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Anne-Laure Delatte & Julien Fouquau, 2012. "What drove the massive hoarding of international reserves? A time-varying approach," Post-Print hal-00822294, HAL.
    10. Yeonjeong Lee & Seong-Min Yoon, 2020. "Relationship between International Reserves and FX Rate Movements," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(17), pages 1-24, August.
    11. Ä°mre ERSOY, 2011. "On Reserve Hoarding In Emes: The Case Of Turkey," Journal of Applied Economic Sciences, Spiru Haret University, Faculty of Financial Management and Accounting Craiova, vol. 6(3(17)/ Fa), pages 230-243.
    12. Steiner, Andreas, 2014. "Reserve accumulation and financial crises: From individual protection to systemic risk," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 126-144.
    13. Aizenman, Joshua & Sun, Yi, 2012. "The financial crisis and sizable international reserves depletion: From ‘fear of floating’ to the ‘fear of losing international reserves’?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 250-269.
    14. Cheung, Yin-Wong & Sengupta, Rajeswari, 2011. "Accumulation of reserves and keeping up with the Joneses: The case of LATAM economies," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 19-31, January.
    15. Hur, Sewon & Kondo, Illenin O., 2016. "A theory of rollover risk, sudden stops, and foreign reserves," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 44-63.
    16. Lüger, Tim, 2018. "A VAR evaluation of classical growth theory," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 231, Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Law and Economics.
    17. Andrew T. Young, 2017. "How the City Air Made Us Free: The Self-Governing Medieval City and the Bourgeois Revaluation," Journal of Private Enterprise, The Association of Private Enterprise Education, vol. 32(Winter 20), pages 31-47.
    18. Joanna Ligenzowska, 2016. "Regional Innovation Systems in Sweden," International Economics, University of Lodz, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, issue 16, pages 388-405, December.
    19. Petar Vujanovic, 2011. "Understanding the Recent Surge in the Accumulation of International Reserves," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 866, OECD Publishing.
    20. Madsen, Jakob B. & Raschky, Paul A. & Skali, Ahmed, 2015. "Does democracy drive income in the world, 1500–2000?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 175-195.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:asi:aeafrj:2016:p:457-476. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.aessweb.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Chan Hoi Yan (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.aessweb.com/ .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.