A New Economic Dimension to the Environmental Kuznets Curve: Estimation of Environmental Efficiency in Case of Pakistan
This study attempts to examine the linkage between environmental degradation and economic growth in Pakistan over the period 1972-2011. The main concern of this study is to test the validity of Environmental Kuznets Curve in case of Pakistan and aims to find out the total and per capita carbon efficiency of Pakistan. Moreover, this study estimates the tipping point of environmental Kuznets curve in case of Pakistan. The study used Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model to determine the robustness of long-run relationship among environmental degradation and economic growth. The results show that the inverted U-shaped relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation is valid in case of Pakistan. The values of total carbon efficiency for Pakistan is 47.69 and per capita carbon efficiency for Pakistan is 0.0002, which are relatively low as compare to other developing and developed countries like in the region. The Tipping Point of EKC in case of Pakistan is 338.34. This study recommends that government should keep into consideration the sustainable economic policies with environmental policies, as environmental sustainability largely based on the economic conditions and economic policies adopted by the countries.
Volume (Year): 4 (2014)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.aessweb.com/
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Shafik, Nemat, 1994. "Economic Development and Environmental Quality: An Econometric Analysis," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(0), pages 757-73, Supplemen.
- Susmita Dasgupta & Benoit Laplante & Hua Wang & David Wheeler, 2002. "Confronting the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(1), pages 147-168, Winter.
- Wagner, Martin, 2008.
"The carbon Kuznets curve: A cloudy picture emitted by bad econometrics?,"
Resource and Energy Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 388-408, August.
- Martin Wagner & Georg Müller-Fürstenberger, 2004. "The Carbon Kuznets Curve: A Cloudy Picture Emitted by Bad Econometrics?," Diskussionsschriften dp0418, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
- Wagner, Martin, 2006. "The Carbon Kuznets Curve. A Cloudy Picture Emitted by Bad Econometrics?," Economics Series 197, Institute for Advanced Studies.
- Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1991.
"Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement,"
NBER Working Papers
3914, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Grossman, Gene & Krueger, Alan B, 1992. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," CEPR Discussion Papers 644, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Grossman, G.M & Krueger, A.B., 1991. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," Papers 158, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
- de Bruyn, S. M. & van den Bergh, J. C. J. M. & Opschoor, J. B., 1998. "Economic growth and emissions: reconsidering the empirical basis of environmental Kuznets curves," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 161-175, May.
- Nasir, Muhammad & Ur Rehman, Faiz, 2011. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon emissions in Pakistan: An empirical investigation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1857-1864, March.
- Poudel, Biswo N. & Paudel, Krishna P. & Bhattarai, Keshav, 2009. "Searching for an Environmental Kuznets Curve in Carbon Dioxide Pollutant in Latin American Countries," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 41(01), April.
- Grossman, Gene M & Krueger, Alan B, 1995.
"Economic Growth and the Environment,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-77, May.
- Shafik, Nemat & Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit, 1992. "Economic growth and environmental quality : time series and cross-country evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 904, The World Bank.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- Alassane Drabo, 2010. "Environment Quality and Economic Convergence: Extending Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(2), pages 1617-1632.
- Stern, David I., 2004.
"The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve,"
Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
- David I. Stern, 2003. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0302, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
- Lopez Ramon, 1994. "The Environment as a Factor of Production: The Effects of Economic Growth and Trade Liberalization," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 163-184, September.
- Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
- Baris K. Yörük & Osman Zaim, 2006. "The Kuznets curve and the effect of international regulations on environmental efficiency," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 17(1), pages 1-7.
- Per-Olov Johansson & Bengt Kriström, 2007. "On a clear day you might see an environmental Kuznets curve," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 37(1), pages 77-90, May.
- Islam, N. & Vincent, J., 1999. "Unveiling the Income-Environment Relationship: An Exploration into the Determinants of Environmental Quality," Papers 701, Harvard - Institute for International Development.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:asi:aeafrj:2014:p:68-79. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Qazi Muhammad Imran)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.