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Manufacture of Anatomical Synthetic Demonstrating Models


  • hanan mokhtar

    (Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt)

  • Hanan E.L Mokhtar

    (Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt)


The practical demonstration session is usually conducted using wet dissected cadaver specimens, plastinated specimens and sometimes plastic anatomical models. Computer-aided teaching means are added nowadays. Due to high formalin toxicity, high cost of plastinated specimens, high cost of computer-aided teaching programs, the synthetic specimens or plastic models are still good substitutes for practical teaching and learning, especially in developing countries like Egypt. Since imported synthetic models are relatively expensive, especially the magnified or those of high quality, the present trial aims at finding a simplified designing idea for manufacture of anatomical models. This simplified methodology helps in changing the two dimensional (2D) pictures to 3D synthetic anatomical local models. These models can be of great help in illustrations and teaching purposes especially for minute parts like natural ear ossicles, which can never be displayed in practical lessons except as pictures. In the present study, different human middle ear ossicles were obtained by repeated dissections of multiple wet cadavers to make an average dimensions for each ossicle. Two dimensional photographs for the ossicles on 1 mm-squared background sheet were taken to confirm measurements and the desired magnification was determined according to the reasonable demonstration distance. The third dimension is deduced by repeated reading of different sources and by reviewing their pictures in different aspects. Three-dimensional primitive magnified models made of sculpting clay were made. Permanent models were manufactured by using synthetic liquid polyester. All models contain wire core skeleton. These manufactured demonstrating anatomical models were found to be durable and easily portable in addition to their relatively simplified manufacturing methodology. They can also offer the basis for manufacturing of implants and prosthesis needed for rehabilitation purposes.

Suggested Citation

  • hanan mokhtar & Hanan E.L Mokhtar, 2014. "Manufacture of Anatomical Synthetic Demonstrating Models," International Review of Applied Sciences, Asian Online Journal Publishing Group, vol. 1(1), pages 17-24.
  • Handle: RePEc:aoj:inroas:2014:p:17-24

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    Cited by:

    1. O'Neill, P. & Mestre-Ferrandiz, J. & Puig-Peiro, R. & Sussex, J., 2014. "Projecting Expenditure on Medicines in the NHS: Second Edition," Research Papers 000070, Office of Health Economics.


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