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Links between economic liberalization and rural resource degradation in the developing regions

  • Barbier, Edward B.

This paper examines evidence of the effects of economic liberalization and globalization on rural resource degradation in developing countries. The principal resource effects of concern are processes of land use change leading to forestland conversion, degradation and deforestation. The main trends in globalization of interest are trade liberalization and economy-wide reforms in developing countries that have 'opened up' the agroindustrial sectors, thus increasing their export -orientation. Such reforms have clearly spurred agroindustrialization, rural development and economic growth, but there is also concern that there may be direct and indirect impacts on rural resource degradation. The direct impacts may occur as increased agricultural activity leads to conversion of forests and increased land degradation from 'unsustainable' production methods. However, there may also be indirect effects if agroindustrial development displaces landless, near-landless and rural poor generally, who then migrate to marginal agricultural lands and forest frontier regions. This paper explores these direct and indirect effects of globalization and agroindustrialization on rural resource degradation both generally, plus through examining case study evidence. The paper focuses in particular on the examples of structural adjustment, trade liberalization and agricultural development in Ghana, and maize sector liberalization in Mexico under North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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Article provided by International Association of Agricultural Economists in its journal Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists.

Volume (Year): 23 (2000)
Issue (Month): 3 (September)
Pages:

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Handle: RePEc:ags:iaaeaj:176224
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  1. Levy, Santiago & van Wijnbergen, Sweder, 1992. "Maize and the Free Trade Agreement between Mexico and the United States," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 6(3), pages 481-502, September.
  2. Lopez, Ramon, 1997. "Environmental externalities in traditional agriculture and the impact of trade liberalization: the case of Ghana," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 17-39, June.
  3. Edward B. Barbier & Joanne C. Burgess, 1997. "The Economics of Tropical Forest Land Use Options," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 73(2), pages 174-195.
  4. de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & de Anda, Gustavo Gordillo, 1995. "NAFTA and Mexico's maize producers," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(8), pages 1349-1362, August.
  5. Badiane, Ousmane & Shively, Gerald E., 1998. "Spatial integration, transport costs, and the response of local prices to policy changes in Ghana," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 411-431, August.
  6. Ramón López, 1998. "Agricultural Intensification, Common Property Resources and the Farm-Household," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 11(3), pages 443-458, April.
  7. Khan, Mohsin S, 1987. "Macroeconomic Adjustment in Developing Countries: A Policy Perspective," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 2(1), pages 23-42, January.
  8. Reardon, Thomas & Vosti, Stephen A., 1995. "Links between rural poverty and the environment in developing countries: Asset categories and investment poverty," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(9), pages 1495-1506, September.
  9. Barbier, Edward B. & Burgess, J.C., 1996. "Economic analysis of deforestation in Mexico," MPRA Paper 12089, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  10. Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1987. "Some Theoretical Aspects of Agricultural Policies," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 2(1), pages 43-60, January.
  11. Deininger, Klaus W & Minten, Bart, 1999. "Poverty, Policies, and Deforestation: The Case of Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(2), pages 313-44, January.
  12. Lal, Deepak & Rajapatirana, Sarath, 1987. "Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Growth in Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 2(2), pages 189-217, July.
  13. Maureen Cropper & Charles Griffiths & Muthukumara Mani, 1999. "Roads, Population Pressures, and Deforestation in Thailand, 1976-1989," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 75(1), pages 58-73.
  14. Jaeger, W.K., 1992. "The Effects of Economic Policies on African Agriculture," World Bank - Discussion Papers 147, World Bank.
  15. Benhin, James K.A. & Barbier, Edward B., 2001. "The Effects Of The Structural Adjustment Program On Deforestation In Ghana," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 30(1), April.
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