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Rural Income Generating Activities in Developing Countries: Re-assessing the Evidence

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  • Carletto, Gero
  • Covarrubias, Katia
  • Davis, Benjamin
  • Krausova, Marika
  • Stamoulis, Kostas G.
  • Winters, Paul C.
  • Zezza, Alberto

Abstract

This paper contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of developing country rural labour markets by re-evaluating the available evidence on the levels and composition of income sources adopted by rural households in order to understand the relationship between the various economic activities taking place in rural areas and their implications for economic growth and poverty reduction. This is achieved in two parts: First, the paper introduces the Rural Income Generating Activities (RIGA) database, a newly constructed FAO repository of household survey data, income measures and cross-country comparable indicators. Second, using the RIGA database, the paper undertakes a descriptive analysis of the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors of the rural economy, assessing the importance of rural non-farm activities within the complex income strategies adopted by rural households in developing countries and their relationship to poverty and inequality.

Suggested Citation

  • Carletto, Gero & Covarrubias, Katia & Davis, Benjamin & Krausova, Marika & Stamoulis, Kostas G. & Winters, Paul C. & Zezza, Alberto, 2007. "Rural Income Generating Activities in Developing Countries: Re-assessing the Evidence," eJADE: electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Food and Agriculture Organization, Agricultural and Development Economics Division, vol. 4(1).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:ejadef:112596
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Holden, Stein & Shiferaw, Bekele & Pender, John, 2004. "Non-farm income, household welfare, and sustainable land management in a less-favoured area in the Ethiopian highlands," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 369-392, August.
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    5. Benjamin Davis & Paul Winters & Gero Carletto & Katia Covarrubias & Esteban Quinones & Alberto Zezza & Kostas Stamoulis & Genny Bonomi & Stefania DiGiuseppe, 2007. "Rural Income Generating Activities; A Cross Country Comparison," Working Papers 07-16, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
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    Cited by:

    1. Bi Goli Jean Jacques Iritié & Fabrice Soukou Djaléga, 2016. "Diversification of income sources for cocoa farm households: a case study of the Central West of Côte d'Ivoire," African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(3), pages 230-265.
    2. Tuyen, Tran Quang, 2013. "Farmland and peri-urban livelihoods in Hanoi, Vietnam: evidence from household survey data," MPRA Paper 60847, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 19 Dec 2014.
    3. Carletto, Gero & Covarrubias, Katia & Davis, Benjamin & Krausova, Marika & Stamoulis, Kostas G. & Winters, Paul C. & Zezza, Alberto, 2007. "Rural Income Generating Activities in Developing Countries: Re-assessing the Evidence," eJADE: electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Food and Agriculture Organization, Agricultural and Development Economics Division, vol. 4(1).
    4. Christiaensen, Luc & Todo, Yasuyuki, 2014. "Poverty Reduction During the Rural–Urban Transformation – The Role of the Missing Middle," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 43-58.
    5. Tran Quang Tuyen, 2015. "Socio-Economic Determinants of Household Income among Ethnic Minorities in the North-West Mountains, Vietnam," Croatian Economic Survey, The Institute of Economics, Zagreb, vol. 17(1), pages 139-159, June.
    6. Rafael E. de Hoyos & Denis Medvedev, 2011. "Poverty Effects of Higher Food Prices: A Global Perspective," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(3), pages 387-402, August.
    7. Stamoulis, Kostas G. & Pingali, Prabhu L. & Reardon, Thomas, 2006. "Impacts of Agrifood Market Transformation during Globalization on the Poor's Rural Nonfarm Employment: Lessons for Rural Business Development Programs," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25556, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    8. Ovwigho, Bishop O., 2014. "Factors Influencing Involvement in Nonfarm Income Generating Activities Among Local Farmers: The Case of Ughelli South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria," Sustainable Agriculture Research, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 3(1).
    9. Achyuta R. Adhvaryu & Kathleen Beegle, 2012. "The Long-Run Impacts of Adult Deaths on Older Household Members in Tanzania," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(2), pages 245-277.
    10. Barron, Manuel & Torero, Maximo, 2012. "Determinants of Time Allocation to Rural Non-Farm Activities in Central America: The Role of Infrastructure and EducationI," MPRA Paper 61421, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Janssens, Charlotte & Van den Broeck, Goedele & Maertens, Miet & Lambrecht, Isabel, 2018. "Mothers’ non-farm entrepreneurship and child secondary education in rural Ghana:," IFPRI discussion papers 1705, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    12. Bandeira, Pablo & Sumpsi, Jose Maria, 2009. "Access to land and rural poverty in developing countries: theory and evidence from Guatemala," MPRA Paper 13365, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Quang Tran, Tuyen, 2012. "A review on the link between nonfarm activities, land and rural livelihoods in Vietnam and developing countries," MPRA Paper 55850, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 17 Nov 2013.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    rural economy; non-farm activities; income inequality; income diversification; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development; O12; O18; R23;

    JEL classification:

    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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