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Citations for "Consumer Discrimination and Self-employment"

by Borjas, George J & Bronars, Stephen G

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  1. Luca Flabbi, 2004. "Gender Discrimination Estimation in a Search Model with Matching and Bargaining," 2004 Meeting Papers 367, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  2. Nils Braakmann, 2010. "Neo-Nazism and discrimination against foreigners: A direct test of taste discrimination," Working Paper Series in Economics 165, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  3. Heinrichs, Simon & Walter, Sascha, 2013. "Who Becomes an Entrepreneur? A 30-Years-Review of Individual-Level Research and an Agenda for Future Research," EconStor Preprints 68590, ZBW - German National Library of Economics.
  4. Fairlie, Robert W. & Robb, Alicia, 2004. "Why Are Black-Owned Businesses Less Successful than White-Owned Businesses? The Role of Families, Inheritances, and Business Human Capital," IZA Discussion Papers 1292, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Bruce D. Meyer, 1990. "Why Are There So Few Black Entrepreneurs?," NBER Working Papers 3537, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Susan B. Carter & Richard Sutch, 1997. "Historical Perspectives on the Economic Consequences of Immigration into the United States," NBER Historical Working Papers 0106, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Magnus Lofstrom, 2002. "Labor market assimilation and the self-employment decision of immigrant entrepreneurs," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 15(1), pages 83-114.
  8. Nada Kobeissi, 2010. "Gender factors and female entrepreneurship: International evidence and policy implications," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 1-35, March.
  9. H. J. Holzer & K. R. Ihlanfeldt, . "Customer Discrimination and Employment Outcomes for Minority Workers," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1122-97, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
  10. Ross Levine & Yona Rubinstein, 2013. "Smart and Illicit: Who Becomes an Entrepreneur and Does it Pay?," CEP Discussion Papers dp1237, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  11. Nils Braakmann, 2007. "Differences in the earnings distribution of self- and dependent emploxed German men - evidence from a quantile regression decomposition analysis," Working Paper Series in Economics 55, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
  12. Abigail Barr & Abena Oduro, 2000. "Ethnicity and Wage Determination in Ghana," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2000-09, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  13. Asa Rosen, 2003. "Search, Bargaining, and Employer Discrimination," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(4), pages 807-830, October.
  14. Robert W. Fairlie, 2002. "Drug Dealing and Legitimate Self-Employment," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 538-567, July.
  15. GOBILLON Laurent & SELOD Harris & ZENOU Yves, 2007. "The mechanisms of spatial mismatch," Research Unit Working Papers 0701, Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquee, INRA.
  16. Chatterji, Aaron K & Chay, Kenneth Y & Fairlie, Robert W, 2013. "The Impact of City Contracting Set-Asides on Black Self-Employment and Employment," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt479755b2, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  17. Hugo Ñopo & Patricio Valenzuela, 2007. "Becoming an Entrepreneur," Research Department Publications 4519, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  18. Daniela Andren & John S. Earle & Dana Sapatoru, . "The Wage Effects of Schooling under Socialism and in Transition: Evidence from Romania, 1950-2000," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles jse20051, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  19. Ashwini Deshpande & Smriti Sharma, 2014. "Is Self-Employment The Answer To Caste Discrimination? Decomposing The Earnings Gap In Indian Household Nonfarm Businesses," Working papers 236, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
  20. Mandelman, Federico S. & Montes-Rojas, Gabriel V., 2009. "Is Self-employment and Micro-entrepreneurship a Desired Outcome?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 1914-1925, December.
  21. Fairlie Robert & Woodruff Christopher M., 2010. "Mexican-American Entrepreneurship," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-44, February.
  22. Kingsley R. Browne, 1999. "An evolutionary account of women's workplace status," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(7-8), pages 427-440.
  23. Lofstrom, Magnus & Bates, Timothy, 2007. "African Americans' Pursuit of Self-Employment," IZA Discussion Papers 3156, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  24. Fairlie, Robert W, 1999. "The Absence of the African-American Owned Business: An Analysis of the Dynamics of Self-Employment," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(1), pages 80-108, January.
  25. Robert W. Fairlie & Bruce D. Meyer, . "Trends in Self-Employment Among White and Black Men: 1910 - 1990," IPR working papers 99-1, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University.
  26. Markus Poschke, 2012. "Who Becomes an Entrepreneur? Labor Market Prospects and Occupational Choice," Cahiers de recherche 13-2012, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  27. Tito Boeri & Marta De Philippis & Eleonora Patacchini & Michele Pellizzari, 2014. "Immigration, Housing Discrimination and Employment," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1414, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
  28. David G. Blanchflower, 2000. "Self-Employment in OECD Countries," NBER Working Papers 7486, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. Larsen, Birthe & Waisman, Gisela, 2007. "Who is hurt by discrimination?," Working Papers 12-2007, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Economics.
  30. Link, Albert N. & Welsh, Dianne H. B., 2011. "From Laboratory to Market: On the Propensity of Young Inventors to Form a New Business," Working Papers 11-11, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
  31. Robert W. Fairlie & Bruce D. Meyer, 1994. "The Ethnic and Racial Character of Self-Employment," NBER Working Papers 4791, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  32. Ruth Oyelere & Willie Belton, 2013. "Black–White gap in self-employment. Does intra-race heterogeneity exist?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 25-39, June.
  33. Audrey Light & Alita Nandi, 2007. "Identifying race and ethnicity in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 125-144, April.
  34. Ali M Ahmed & Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2009. "Ethnic Discrimination in the Market Place of Small Business Transfers," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(4), pages 3050-3058.
  35. Xiaogang Wu, 2002. "Embracing the Market: Entry into Self-Employment in Transitional China, 1978-1996," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 512, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  36. Fujii, Edwin T. & Hawley, Clifford B., 1991. "Empirical aspects of self-employment," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 323-329, July.
  37. Gabin Langevin & David Masclet & Fabien Moizeau & Emmanuel Peterle, 2013. "Educational Attainment, Wages and Employment of Second-Generation Immigrants in France," CIRANO Working Papers 2013s-33, CIRANO.
  38. Paul Frijters & Michael A Shileds & Nikolaos Theodoropoulos & Stephen Wheatley, 2003. "Testing for Employee Discrimination using Matched Employer-Employee Data: Theory and Evidence," School of Economics and Finance Discussion Papers and Working Papers Series 168b, School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology.
  39. Frank M. Fossen, 2007. "Risky Earnings, Taxation and Entrepreneurial Choice: A Microeconometric Model for Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 705, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  40. Frank Kalter & Irena Kogan, 2002. "Ethnic Inequalities at Labour Market Entry in Belgium and Spain," MZES Working Papers 49, MZES.
  41. Guillaume Destré & Valentine Henrard, 2004. "The determinants of occupational choice in Colombia : an empirical analysis," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques bla04065a, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  42. Cruces Guillermo & Makdissi Paul & Wodon Quentin T., 2004. "Poverty Measurement Under Risk Aversion Using Panel Data," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-20, September.
  43. Andersson Joona, Pernilla & Wadensjö, Eskil, 2004. "Self-Employed Immigrants in Denmark and Sweden: A Way to Economic Self-Reliance?," IZA Discussion Papers 1130, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  44. Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth & Belton, Willie, 2008. "The Role of Information and Institutions in Understanding the Black-White Gap in Self-Employment," IZA Discussion Papers 3761, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  45. Sarah Brown & Lisa Farrell & Mark N. Harris & John G. Sessions, 2006. "Risk preference and employment contract type," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 169(4), pages 849-863.
  46. Bengtsson, Ola & Sanandaji, Tino & Johannesson, Magnus, 2012. "The Psychology of the Entrepreneur and the Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship," Working Paper Series 944, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 30 Oct 2013.
  47. Hugo Ñopo & Patricio Valenzuela, 2007. "Convirtiéndose en empresario," Research Department Publications 4520, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  48. Gobillon, Laurent & Rupert, Peter & Wasmer, Etienne, 2013. "Ethnic Unemployment Rates and Frictional Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 9507, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  49. David Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald, 1990. "What Makes an Entrepreneur? Evidence on Inheritance and Capital Constraints," NBER Working Papers 3252, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  50. Atalay, Kadir & Kim, Woo-Yung & Whelan, Stephen, 2013. "The Decline of the Self-Employment Rate in Australia," Working Papers 2013-03, University of Sydney, School of Economics.
  51. Clark, Kenneth & Drinkwater, Stephen, 2000. "Pushed out or pulled in? Self-employment among ethnic minorities in England and Wales," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 603-628, September.
  52. Fairlie, Robert, 2014. "Ethnic and Racial Self-Employment Differences and Possible Explanations," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt24p7v6gc, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  53. Davila, Alberto & Mora, Marie T., 2004. "The scholastic progress of students with entrepreneurial parents," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 287-299, June.
  54. Liliana Sousa, 2013. "Community Determinants Of Immigrant Self-Employment: Human Capital Spillovers And Ethnic Enclaves," Working Papers 13-21, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  55. Clain, Suzanne Heller, 2000. "Gender differences in full-time self-employment," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(6), pages 499-513.
  56. Bogan, Vicki & Darity Jr., William, 2008. "Culture and entrepreneurship? African American and immigrant self-employment in the United States," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1999-2019, October.
  57. Bruder, Jana & Neuberger, Doris & Räthke-Döppner, Solvig, 2008. "Financial constraints of ethnic entrepreneurship: Evidence from Germany," Thuenen-Series of Applied Economic Theory 84, University of Rostock, Institute of Economics.
  58. Zheng Fang & Chris Sakellariou, 2013. "Discrimination in the Equilibrium Search Model with Wage-Tenure Contracts," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 14(2), pages 451-480, November.
  59. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
  60. Pernilla Andersson Joona & Eskil Wadensjö, 2013. "The best and the brightest or the least successful? Self-employment entry among male wage-earners in Sweden," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 155-172, January.
  61. Chris Minns, & Mariyan Rizov, 2003. "The spirit of capitalism? Immigration, religion, and self-employment in early 20th century Canada," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp08, IIIS.
  62. Korpi, Martin & Hedberg, Charlotta & Pettersson, Katarina, 2013. "Immigrant Women and Entrepreneurship: A Study of the Health Care Sector in Sweden, 2002-2006," SULCIS Working Papers 2013:3, Stockholm University Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies - SULCIS.
  63. Amit, Raphael & Muller, Eitan & Cockburn, Iain, 1995. "Opportunity costs and entrepreneurial activity," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 95-106, March.
  64. Emilio Congregado & Vicente Esteve & Antonio A. Golpe, 2013. "From complements to substitutes: Structural breaks in the elasticity of substitution between paid-employment and self-employment in the US," Working Papers 1319, Department of Applied Economics II, Universidad de Valencia.
  65. Schuetze, Herb J., 2000. "Taxes, economic conditions and recent trends in male self-employment: a Canada-US comparison," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 507-544, September.
  66. P. Köllinger & M. Minniti, 2006. "Not for Lack of Trying: American Entrepreneurship in Black and White," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 59-79, August.
  67. Simoes, Nadia & Moreira, Sandrina B. & Crespo, Nuno, 2013. "Individual Determinants of Self-Employment Entry – What Do We Really Know?," MPRA Paper 48403, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  68. Salvador Carmona, 2003. "Who Becomes an Auditing Entrepreneur? The Effects of Human Capital, Age, and Job Stability," Working Papers Economia wp03-17, Instituto de Empresa, Area of Economic Environment.
  69. Williams, Donald R., 2009. "Gender Discrimination and Self-Employment Dynamics in Europe," IRISS Working Paper Series 2009-20, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
  70. Kawaguchi, Daiji, 2003. "Human capital accumulation of salaried and self-employed workers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 55-71, February.
  71. Randall K.Q Akee & David A Jaeger & Konstantinos Tatsiramos, 2013. "The Persistence of Self-Employment Across Borders: New Evidence on Legal Immigrants to the United States," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(1), pages 126-137.
  72. Robert W. Fairlie & Bruce D. Meyer, . "Does Immigration Hurt African-American Self-Employment?," IPR working papers 97-1, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University.
  73. Christian Dustmann & Francesca Fabbri, 2005. "Immigrants in the British labour market," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 26(4), pages 423-470, December.
  74. repec:dgr:uvatin:2009070 is not listed on IDEAS
  75. Constant, Amelie F. & Shachmurove, Yochanan, 2003. "Entrepreneurial Ventures and Wage Differentials Between Germans and Immigrants," IZA Discussion Papers 879, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  76. Poschke, Markus, 2013. "The Decision to Become an Entrepreneur and the Firm Size Distribution: A Unifying Framework for Policy Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 7757, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  77. Minns, Chris & Rizov, Marian, 2005. "The spirit of capitalism? Ethnicity, religion, and self-employment in early 20th century Canada," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 259-281, April.
  78. Neville, François & Orser, Barbara & Riding, Allan & Jung, Owen, 2014. "Do young firms owned by recent immigrants outperform other young firms?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 55-71.
  79. Michael Hout & Harvey S. Rosen, 1999. "Self-Employment, Family Background, and Race," NBER Working Papers 7344, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  80. Leung, Danny, 2006. "The male/female earnings gap and female self-employment," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 759-779, October.
  81. Roche, Kristen, 2013. "Reconciling gender differences in the returns to education in self-employment: Does occupation matter?," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 112-119.
  82. Yolanda Pena-Boquete, 2006. "A Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Gender Wage Discrimination: Spain Versus Galicia," ERSA conference papers ersa06p340, European Regional Science Association.
  83. Marco Caliendo & Frank Fossen & Alexander Kritikos & Miriam Wetter, 2014. "The Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Not Just a Matter of Personality," CESifo Working Paper Series 4803, CESifo Group Munich.
  84. Kræn Blume & Mette Ejrnæs & Helena Nielsen & Allan Würtz, 2009. "Labor market transitions of immigrants with emphasis on marginalization and self-employment," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 22(4), pages 881-908, October.
  85. Williams, Darrell L., 1999. "Why do entrepreneurs become franchisees? an empirical analysis of organizational choice," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 103-124, January.
  86. Bodvarsson, Orn B. & Partridge, Mark D., 2001. "A supply and demand model of co-worker, employer and customer discrimination," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 389-416, June.
  87. John J. Donohue III, 2005. "The Law and Economics of Antidiscrimination Law," NBER Working Papers 11631, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  88. Robert W. Fairlie, 2004. "Recent Trends in Ethnic and Racial Business Ownership," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 203-218, October.
  89. Boris F. Blumberg & Gerard A. Pfann, 2001. "Social Capital and the Uncertainty Reduction of Self-Employment," Working Papers 0112, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago.
  90. Waisman, Gisela & Larsen, Birthe, 2007. "Do attitudes towards immigrants matter?," Working Papers 11-2007, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Economics.
  91. Ruiz-Vargas, Yolanda, 2000. "Small business financing sources between immigrants and natives in Puerto Rico," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 387-399.
  92. Marcén, Miriam, 2013. "The effect of culture on self-employment," MPRA Paper 47338, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  93. Gregory Price, 2005. "Consumer discrimination and black firm entry deterrence: Some reparable damage estimates," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer, vol. 32(3), pages 121-140, March.
  94. A Rosen, 1992. "An Equilibrium Search-Matching Model of Discrimination," CEP Discussion Papers dp0097, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  95. Amelie Constant & Yochanan Shachmurove, 2005. "The comparison of incomes of self-employed and salaried workers among German Nationals and immigrants," PIER Working Paper Archive 05-030, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  96. Barr & Oduro, Abena, 2000. "Ethnicity and wage determination in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2506, The World Bank.
  97. Allen, W. David, 2000. "Social networks and self-employment," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 487-501.
  98. David Blanchflower & Andrew Oswald, 1992. "Entrepreneurship, Happiness and Supernormal Returns: Evidence from Britain and the US," NBER Working Papers 4228, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  99. Mar, Don, 2005. "Individual characteristics vs. city structural characteristics: explaining self-employment differences among Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos in the United States," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 341-359, May.
  100. Sieds, 2011. "Complete Volume LXV n.1 2011," RIEDS - Rivista Italiana di Economia, Demografia e Statistica - Italian Review of Economics, Demography and Statistics, SIEDS Societa' Italiana di Economia Demografia e Statistica, vol. 0(1), pages 1-181.
  101. Miriam Marcen, 2013. "The role of Culture on Self-Employment," ERSA conference papers ersa13p752, European Regional Science Association.
  102. Kar, Saibal, 2009. "International labor migration, asymmetric information and occupational choice," MPRA Paper 24106, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  103. Garen, John, 1998. "Self-employment, pay systems, and the theory of the firm: An empirical analysis," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 257-274, August.
  104. Miller-Tait, Evan & Luckert, Marty & Mohapatra, Sandeep & Swallow, Brent, 2013. "Reconsidering Post Green Revolution Food Choices: New Processing Technologies and Food Security in India," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150347, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  105. Valdez, Zulema, 2003. "Beyond Ethnic Entrepreneurship: Ethnicity and the Economy in Enterprise," University of California at San Diego, Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies qt8c8206b6, Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, UC San Diego.
  106. Nicolaou, Nicos & Shane, Scott, 2009. "Can genetic factors influence the likelihood of engaging in entrepreneurial activity?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 1-22, January.
  107. Y Georgellis & J G Sessions & N Tsitsianis, 2005. "Self-Employment Longitudinal Dynamics: A Review of the Literature," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 10(2), pages 51-84, September.
  108. Earle, John S. & Sakova, Zuzana, 1999. "Entrepreneurship from Scratch: Lessons on the Entry Decision into Self-Employment from Transition Economies," IZA Discussion Papers 79, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  109. Jose Plehn-Dujowich, 2010. "A theory of serial entrepreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(4), pages 377-398, November.
  110. Joanna Georgios Alexopoulos & Anne Villamil, 2014. "The Effects Of Frictions In The Labormarket On Entrepreneurship And Economic Development," Anais do XL Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 40th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 045, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  111. Yannis Georgellis & Howard Wall, 2005. "Gender differences in self-employment," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-342.
  112. Barr, Abigail & Oduro, Abena, 2002. "Ethnic fractionalization in an African labour market," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 355-379, August.
  113. Christofides, Louis N. & Pashardes, Panos, 2002. "Self/paid-employment, public/private sector selection, and wage differentials," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(6), pages 737-762, December.
  114. Nathalie Colombier & David Masclet, 2008. "Intergenerational correlation in self employment: some further evidence from French ECHP data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 423-437, April.
  115. Daiji Kawaguchi, 2002. "Compensating Wage Differentials among Self-Employed Workers:Evidence from Job Satisfaction Scores," ISER Discussion Paper 0568, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.