Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

Citations for "The Dynamic Effects of Health on the Labor Force Transitions of Older Workers"

by John Bound & Michael Schoenbaum & Todd R. Stinebrickner & Timothy Waidmann

For a complete description of this item, click here. For a RSS feed for citations of this item, click here.
as in new window
  1. Giorgio Brunello & Pierre-Carl Michaud & Anna Sanz-de-Galdeano, 2008. "The Rise in Obesity Across the Atlantic: An Economic Perspective," Working Papers 586, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
  2. Gannon, Brenda & Nolan, Brian, 2007. "Transitions in Disability and Work/Discapacidad y trabajo: una revisión de la evidencia británica," Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, vol. 25, pages 447-472, Abril.
  3. Kuhn, Michael & Wrzaczek, Stefan & Prskawetz, Alexia & Feichtinger, Gustav, 2011. "Optimal Choice of Health and Retirement in a Life-Cycle Model," Annual Conference 2011 (Frankfurt, Main): The Order of the World Economy - Lessons from the Crisis 48681, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  4. Kerkhofs, Marcel & Lindeboom, Maarten & Theeuwes, Jules, 1998. "Retirement, financial incentives and health," Serie Research Memoranda 0042, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  5. Didier Blanchet & Thierry Debrand, 2008. "The sooner, the better? Analyzing preferences for early retirement in European countries," Working Papers DT13, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Jul 2008.
  6. Hugo Benitez-Silva & Huan Ni, 2005. "Health Status and Health Dynamics in an Empirical Model of Expected Longevity," Department of Economics Working Papers 05-14, Stony Brook University, Department of Economics.
  7. Blau, David & Riphahn, Regina, 1998. "Labour Force transitions of Older Married Couples in Germany," CEPR Discussion Papers 1911, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Sergi Jimenez-Martin & Jose M. Labeaga & Cristina Vilaplana Prieto, 2007. "Award errors and permanent disability benefits in Spain," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 07/04, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
  9. David M. Blau & Donna B. Gilleskie, 2003. "The Role of Retiree Health Insurance in the Employment Behavior of Older Men," NBER Working Papers 10100, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Sergi Jiménez-Mart�n & José M. Labeaga & Cristina Vilaplana Prieto, 2006. "A sequential model of older workers' labor force transitions after a health shock," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(9), pages 1033-1054.
  11. Judit Vall Castello, 2010. "Promoting Employment of Disabled Women in Spain; Evaluating a Policy," Working Papers 2010-10, FEDEA.
  12. Chen Song & Louis Nguyen, 2003. "The Effect of Hernias on the Labor Force Participation of Union Army Veterans," NBER Chapters, in: Health and Labor Force Participation over the Life Cycle: Evidence from the Past, pages 253-310 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Victoria Prowse, 2007. "Modeling Employment Dynamics with State Dependence and Unobserved Heterogeneity," Economics Series Working Papers 337, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  14. Christopher House & John Laitner & Dmitriy Stolyarov, 2008. "Valuing Lost Home Production Of Dual Earner Couples," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 49(2), pages 701-736, 05.
  15. Zucchelli, E.; & Harris, M.; & Zhao, X.;, 2012. "Ill-health and transitions to part-time work and self-employment among older workers," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 12/04, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
  16. Nigel Rice & Jennifer Roberts & Andrew M. Jones, 2006. "Sick of work or too sick to work? Evidence on health shocks and early retirement from the BHPS," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 06/13, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
  17. Hugo Benítez-Silva & Richard Disney & Sergi Jiménez Martín, 2009. "Disability, Capacity for Work and the Business Cycle: An International Perspective," Working Papers 2009-28, FEDEA.
  18. Behncke S, 2009. "How Does Retirement Affect Health?," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 09/11, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
  19. John Bound & Todd Stinebrickner & Timothy Waidmann, 2007. "Health, Economic Resources and the Work Decisions of Older Men," NBER Working Papers 13657, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Adriaan Kalwij & Frederic Vermeulen, 2008. "Health and labour force participation of older people in Europe: What do objective health indicators add to the analysis?," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(5), pages 619-638.
  21. Johnston, David W. & Propper, Carol & Shields, Michael A., 2009. "Comparing subjective and objective measures of health: Evidence from hypertension for the income/health gradient," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 540-552, May.
  22. Maarten Lindeboom & Marcel Kerkhofs, 2009. "Health and work of the elderly: subjective health measures, reporting errors and endogeneity in the relationship between health and work," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(6), pages 1024-1046.
  23. Thomas Barnay & François Legendre, 2012. "Simultaneous causality between health status and employment status within the population aged 30-59 in France," TEPP Working Paper 2012-13, TEPP.
  24. Fomba Kamga, Benjamin & Kengne Kamga, Arline & Audibert, Martine, 2013. "Health and Labour Income of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers in Cameroon," IZA Discussion Papers 7324, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  25. Davidoff, Amy & Blumberg, Linda & Nichols, Len, 2005. "State health insurance market reforms and access to insurance for high-risk employees," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 725-750, July.
  26. Kalwij, A.S. & Vermeulen, F.M.P., 2006. "Health and Labor Force Participation of the Elderly in Europe: What do Objective Health Measures Add to the Analysis?," Discussion Paper 2006-87, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  27. Lixin Cai, 2009. "Effects of Health on Wages of Australian Men," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 85(270), pages 290-306, 09.
  28. Zamo-Akono, C. & Tsafack-Nanfosso, R., 2008. "Fécondité, Santé et Participation des femmes au Marché du Travail," MPRA Paper 10839, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  29. Whelan, Kenneth T. & Ehrenberg, Ronald G. & Hallock, Kevin F. & Seeber, Ronald L., 2011. "Adverse Selection and Incentives in an Early Retirement Program," IZA Discussion Papers 6055, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  30. John Bound & Todd Stinebrickner & Timothy Waidman, 2004. "Using a Structural Retirement Model to Simulate the Effect of Changes to the OASDI and Medicare Programs," Working Papers wp091, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
  31. Cavaco, Sandra & Etienne, Jean-Michel & Skalli, Ali, 2007. "Identifying causal paths between health and socio-economic status: Evidence from European older workforce surveys," Working Papers 07-8, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Economics.
  32. Michał Myck, 2011. "Policy challenges in Germany and Poland: what can we learn from the SHARE data," Ekonomia journal, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw, vol. 28.
  33. Rena M. Conti & Ernst R. Berndt & Richard G. Frank, 2006. "Early Retirement and Public Disability Insurance Applications: Exploring the Impact of Depression," NBER Working Papers 12237, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  34. Stefanie Schurer, 2008. "Discrete Heterogeneity in the Impact of Health Shocks on Labour Market Outcomes," Ruhr Economic Papers 0071, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  35. Doreen Wing Han Au & Thomas F. Crossley & Martin Schellhorn, 2005. "The Effect of Health Changes and Long-term Health on the Work Activity of Older Canadians," Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population Research Reports 397, McMaster University.
  36. Cai, Lixin & Mavromaras, Kostas G. & Oguzoglu, Umut, 2008. "The Effects of Health and Health Shocks on Hours Worked," IZA Discussion Papers 3496, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  37. Kerwin Kofi Charles & Melvin Stephens, 2004. "Job Displacement, Disability, and Divorce," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(2), pages 489-522, April.
  38. John Bound & Michael Schoenbaum & Todd R. Stinebrickner & Timothy Waidmann, 1998. "The Dynamic Effects of Health on the Labor Force Transitions of Older Workers," NBER Working Papers 6777, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  39. Erik Meijer & Arie Kapteyn & Tatiana Andreyeva, 2008. "Health Indexes and Retirement Modeling in International Comparisons," Working Papers 614, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
  40. Oguzoglu, Umut, 2007. "Dynamics of Work Limitation and Work in Australia," IZA Discussion Papers 2867, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  41. John Laitner & Dan Silverman, 2007. "Life-Cycle Models: Lifetime Earnings and the Timing of Retirement," Working Papers wp165, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
  42. Giles, John T. & Wang, Dewen & Cai, Wei, 2011. "The Labor Supply and Retirement Behavior of China's Older Workers and Elderly in Comparative Perspective," IZA Discussion Papers 6088, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  43. García-Gómez, Pilar, 2011. "Institutions, health shocks and labour market outcomes across Europe," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 200-213, January.
  44. Pamela Lenton & Paul Mosley, 2008. "Debt and Health," Working Papers 2008004, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics, revised Apr 2008.
  45. Brenda Gannon, 2004. "Disability and Labour Force Participation in Ireland 1995-2000," Economics, Finance and Accounting Department Working Paper Series n1431004, Department of Economics, Finance and Accounting, National University of Ireland - Maynooth.
  46. Ana Llena-Nozal & Maarten Lindeboom & France Portrait, 2005. "The effect of work on mental health: Does occupation Matter?," Labor and Demography 0501011, EconWPA.
  47. Robert W. Fogel, 1999. "Catching Up with the Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(1), pages 1-21, March.
  48. Courtney C. Coile, 2004. "Health Shocks and Couples' Labor Supply Decisions," NBER Working Papers 10810, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  49. Deschryvere, Matthias, 2004. "Health and Retirement. An Update of the Literature," Discussion Papers 932, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  50. Willis, Robert J., 1999. "Theory confronts data: how the HRS is shaped by the economics of aging and how the economics of aging will be shaped by the HRS," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 119-145, June.
  51. Steven Haider & David Loughran, 2001. "Elderly Labor Supply: Work or Play?," Working Papers 01-09, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
  52. David M. Linsenmeier, 2002. "Do Retiree Health Benefits Cause Early Retirement?," Working Papers 260, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
  53. James Bailey, 2013. "Who Pays the High Health Costs of Older Workers? Evidence from Prostate Cancer Screening Mandates," DETU Working Papers 1302, Department of Economics, Temple University.
  54. Sergi Jiménez-Martín & José M. Labeaga & Cristina Vilaplana Prieto, 2005. "A sequential model for older workers’ labor transitions after a health shock," Economics Working Papers 898, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  55. Jennifer Roberts & Nigel Rice & Andrew M. Jones, 2008. "Early retirement and inequality in Britain and Germany: How important is health?," Working Papers 2008012, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics, revised Nov 2008.
  56. Piekkola, Hannu & Deschryvere, Matthias, 2004. "Retirement Decisions and Option Values: Their Application Regarding Finland," Discussion Papers 951, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  57. Richard Disney & Carl Emmerson & Matthew Wakefield, 2003. "Ill health and retirement in Britain: a panel data based analysis," IFS Working Papers W03/02, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  58. Grant Johnston, 2005. "Women’s participation in the labour force," Treasury Working Paper Series 05/06, New Zealand Treasury.
  59. Kalwij, A.S. & Vermeulen, F.M.P., 2005. "Labour Force Participation of the Elderly in Europe: The Importance of Being Healthy," Discussion Paper 2005-130, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  60. Lixin Cai & Guyonne Kalb, 2006. "Health status and labour force participation: evidence from Australia," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(3), pages 241-261.
  61. Dwayne Benjamin & Loren Brandt & Jia-Zhueng Fan, 2003. "Ceaseless Toil? Health and Labor Supply of the Elderly in Rural China," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2003-579, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  62. Bridges, Sarah & Disney, Richard, 2010. "Debt and depression," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 388-403, May.
  63. Kevin Neuman, 2008. "Quit Your Job and Get Healthier? The Effect of Retirement on Health," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 29(2), pages 177-201, June.
  64. Thomas Barnay, 2008. "Unemployment and Invalidity after 50: Two Alternative Routes for Senior Citizens in Poor Health to Leave the Labour Market? ," Economie et Statistique, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, vol. 411, pages 47-68, September.
  65. Adena, Maja & Myck, Michal, 2013. "Poverty and transitions in health," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Economics of Change SP II 2013-307, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  66. Danilo Cavapozzi, 2008. "Health and Labor Supply Dynamics of Older Married Workers," "Marco Fanno" Working Papers 0073, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche "Marco Fanno".
  67. Booker, Cara L. & Pudney, Stephen, 2013. "In sickness and in health? Comorbidity in older couples," ISER Working Paper Series 2013-30, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
  68. Didier Blanchet & Thierry Debrand, 2007. "Wanting to Retire as Early as Possible: Health, Job Satisfaction and Monetary Factors," Economie et Statistique, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, vol. 403, pages 39-62, December.
  69. Campolieti, Michele, 2002. "Disability and the labor force participation of older men in Canada," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 405-432, July.
  70. Emma Gorman & Grant M Scobie & Andy Towers, 2012. "Health and Retirement of Older New Zealanders," Treasury Working Paper Series 12/02, New Zealand Treasury.
  71. Ronald Hagan & Andrew M. Jones & Nigel Rice, 2008. "Health Shocks and the Hazard Rate of Early Retirement in the ECHP," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 144(III), pages 323-335, September.
  72. Alan S Duncan & Mark N Harris & Anthony Harris & Eugenio Zucchelli, 2013. "The Influence of Psychological Well-being, Ill Health and Health Shocks on Single Parents' Labour Supply," Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre Working Paper series WP1307, Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin Business School.
  73. García-Gómeza, P & Jones, A.M & Rice, N, 2008. "Health effects on labour market exits and entries," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 08/03, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
  74. Hugo Benitez-Silva & Debra Dwyer, 2002. "Retirement Expectations Formation Using the Health and Retirement Study," Department of Economics Working Papers 02-04, Stony Brook University, Department of Economics, revised 18 Jun 2002.
  75. Jürgen Maurer & Roger Klein & Francis Vella, 2011. "Subjective Health Assessments and Active Labor Market Participation of Older Men: Evidence from a Semiparametric Binary Choice Model with Nonadditive Correlated Individual-specific Effects," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(3), pages 764-774, August.
  76. Michele J. Siegel, 2006. "Measuring the effect of husband's health on wife's labor supply," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(6), pages 579-601.
  77. David Warner & Mark Hayward & Melissa Hardy, 2010. "The Retirement Life Course in America at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer, vol. 29(6), pages 893-919, December.
  78. Andrew M. Jones & Eddy van Doorslaer & Teresa Bago d'Uva & Silvia Balia & Lynn Gambin & Cristina Hernández Quevedo & Xander Koolman & Nigel Rice, 2006. "Health and Wealth: Empirical Findings and Political Consequences," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 7(s1), pages 93-112, 05.
  79. James Enright & Grant M Scobie, 2010. "Healthy, Wealthy and Working: Retirement Decisions of Older New Zealanders," Treasury Working Paper Series 10/02, New Zealand Treasury.
  80. Brenda Gannon, 2005. "A dynamic analysis of disability and labour force participation in Ireland 1995-2000," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(9), pages 925-938.
  81. Rob Euwals & Daniel van Vuuren & Annemiek van Vuren, 2011. "The impact of reforms on labour market exit probabilities," CPB Discussion Paper 179, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  82. Maarten Lindeboom & Marcel Kerkhofs, 2004. "Subjective Health Measures, Reporting Errors and Endogeneity in the Relationship Between Health and Work," CEIS Research Paper 46, Tor Vergata University, CEIS.
  83. Zhang, Xiaohui & Zhao, Xueyan & Harris, Anthony, 2009. "Chronic diseases and labour force participation in Australia," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 91-108, January.
  84. Didier Blanchet & Thierry Debrand, 2007. "Aspiration à la retraite, santé et satisfaction au travail : une comparaison européenne," Working Papers DT1, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Feb 2007.
  85. Hugo Benitez-Silva & Huan Ni, 2007. "Health Status and Health Dynamics in an Empirical Model of Expected Longevity," Department of Economics Working Papers 07-04, Stony Brook University, Department of Economics.
  86. Jones, Melanie K. & Latreille, Paul L. & Sloane, Peter J. & Staneva, Anita V., 2011. "Work-Related Health in Europe: Are Older Workers More at Risk?," IZA Discussion Papers 6044, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  87. Manuel Flores & Adriaan Kalwij, 2013. "What do wages add to the health-employment nexus? Evidence from older European workers," Documentos de trabajo - Analise Economica 0054, IDEGA - Instituto Universitario de Estudios e Desenvolvemento de Galicia.
  88. Lixin Cai, 2007. "The Relationship between Health and Labour Force Participation: Evidence from a Panel Data Simultaneous Equation Model," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2007n01, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
  89. Lindelow, Magnus & Wagstaff, Adam, 2005. "Health shocks in China : are the poor and uninsured less protected ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3740, The World Bank.
  90. Haan, Peter & Myck, Michal, 2009. "Dynamics of health and labor market risks," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 1116-1125, December.
  91. Norma B. Coe & Gema Zamarro, 2008. "Retirement Effects on Health in Europe," Working Papers 588, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
  92. Miguel Ángel Malo & Ricardo Pagán, 2005. "Participación laboral y discapacidad: el caso de la Comunidad Andaluza," Revista de Estudios Regionales, Universidades Públicas de Andalucía, vol. 3, pages 89-116.
  93. Eric Bonsang, 2008. "Does Informal Care from Children to their Elderly Parents Substitute for Formal Care in Europe?," CREPP Working Papers 0801, Centre de Recherche en Economie Publique et de la Population (CREPP) (Research Center on Public and Population Economics) HEC-Management School, University of Liège.
  94. Jones, Melanie K. & Latreille, Paul L. & Sloane, Peter J. & Staneva, Anita V., 2013. "Work-related health risks in Europe: Are older workers more vulnerable?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 18-29.
  95. repec:dgr:uvatin:2011143 is not listed on IDEAS
  96. Maleshkov, Hristo, 2004. "Social and economic circumstances of sex differentials in poor health of elderly population," IRISS Working Paper Series 2004-06, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
  97. C. Deiana, 2013. "Health Shocks and Labour Transitions Across Europe," Working Paper CRENoS 201312, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
  98. D. Blanchet & T. Debrand, 2007. "Preference for early retirement, health and job satisfaction: a European comparison," Documents de Travail de la DESE - Working Papers of the DESE g2007-03, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, DESE.
  99. Pilar García Gómez, 2008. "Institutions, health shocks and labour outcomes across Europe," Working Papers 2008-01, FEDEA.
  100. Gordon B.T. Mermin & Richard W. Johnson & Dan Murphy, 2006. "Why Do Boomers Plan to Work So Long?," Working Papers, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College wp2006-19, Center for Retirement Research, revised Nov 2006.
  101. Jiménez-Martín, Sergi & Labeaga, José M. & Martínez Granado, Maite, 1999. "Health status and retirement decisions for older European couples," IRISS Working Paper Series 1999-01, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
  102. Euwals, Rob & van Vuren, Annemiek & van Vuuren, Daniel, 2011. "The Decline of Early Retirement Pathways in the Netherlands: An Empirical Analysis for the Health Care Sector," IZA Discussion Papers 5810, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  103. Edwin van Gameren, 2008. "Labor Force Participation of Mexican Elderly: The Importance of Health," Estudios Económicos, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Económicos, vol. 23(1), pages 89-127.
  104. Owen O'Donnell & Eddy Van Doorslaer & Tom Van Ourti, 2013. "Health and Inequality," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-170/V, Tinbergen Institute.
  105. Richard V. Burkhauser & Timothy M. Smeeding, 2000. "Microdata Panel Data and Public Policy: National and Cross-National Perspectives," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 23, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  106. Jones, Andrew M. & Rice, Nigel & Roberts, Jennifer, 2010. "Sick of work or too sick to work? Evidence on self-reported health shocks and early retirement from the BHPS," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 866-880, July.
  107. Maarten Lindeboom & Marcel Kerkhofs, 2002. "Health and Work of the Elderly," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-025/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  108. Thomas Barnay, 2010. "In which ways do unhealthy people older than 50 exit the labour market in France?," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer, vol. 11(2), pages 127-140, April.
  109. Deschryvere, Matthias, 2004. "Labour Force Behavior of Elderly Two Adult Households: Evidence from EU-countries," Discussion Papers 933, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  110. Iskhakov, Fedor, 2008. "Dynamic Programming Model of Health and Retirement," Memorandum 03/2008, Oslo University, Department of Economics.