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Citations for "Indicator variables for optimal policy"

by Svensson, Lars E. O. & Woodford, Michael

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  1. Orlowski, Lucjan T., 2004. "Money rules for the eurozone candidate countries," ZEI Working Papers B 05-2004, ZEI - Center for European Integration Studies, University of Bonn.
  2. Chengsi Zhang & Denise R. Osborn & Dong Heon Kim, 2008. "The New Keynesian Phillips Curve: From Sticky Inflation to Sticky Prices," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(4), pages 667-699, 06.
  3. Lars E.O. Svensson & Michael Woodford, 2001. "Indicator Variables for Optimal Policy under Asymmetric Information," NBER Working Papers 8255, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Beck, Günter W. & Wieland, Volker, 2008. "Central Bank misperceptions and the role of money in interest rate rules," Working Paper Series, European Central Bank 0967, European Central Bank.
  5. Juha Kilponen, 2004. "Robust expectations and uncertain models – A robust control approach with application to the New Keynesian economy," GE, Growth, Math methods, EconWPA 0404004, EconWPA.
  6. Lars E.O. Svensson, 2005. "Monetary Policy with Judgment: Forecast Targeting," NBER Working Papers 11167, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Leitemo, Kai & Söderström, Ulf, 2001. "Simple Monetary Policy Rules and Exchange Rate Uncertainty," Working Paper Series 122, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  8. Beck, Guenter W. & Wieland, Volker, 2009. "Money in monetary policy design: Monetary cross-checking in the New-Keynesian Model," CFS Working Paper Series 2009/19, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
  9. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/f4rshpf3v1umfa09lat09b1bg is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Borchert, Manfred, 2004. "The impact of banking behaviour on monetary strategy," Beiträge zur angewandten Wirtschaftsforschung 5, Center of Applied Economic Research Münster (CAWM), University of Münster.
  11. Pontiggia, Dario, 2008. "Commitment policy and optimal positive long-run inflation," MPRA Paper 9534, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. Alexei Onatski & Noah Williams, 2004. "Empirical and policy performance of a forward-looking monetary model," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Mar.
  13. Eric Swanson & Gauti Eggertsson, 2007. "Optimal Time-Consistent Monetary Policy in the New Keynesian Model with Repeated Simultaneous Play," 2007 Meeting Papers, Society for Economic Dynamics 214, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  14. Givens, Gregory & Salemi, Michael, 2012. "Inferring monetary policy objectives with a partially observed state," MPRA Paper 39353, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  15. Lars E. O. Svensson, 2001. "Response to Seitz and Tödter, 'How the P* Model Rationalizes Monetary Targeting: A Comment on Svensson'," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 2(3), pages 309-312, 08.
  16. Fabrice Collard & Harris Dellas, 2007. "The Great Inflation of the 1970s," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(2-3), pages 713-731, 03.
  17. Fabrice Collard & Harris Dellas, 2009. "Monetary Misperceptions, Output and Inflation Dynamics," School of Economics Working Papers 2009-23, University of Adelaide, School of Economics.
  18. Carlo Altavilla, 2003. "Assessing monetary rules performance across EMU countries," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(2), pages 131-151.
  19. Livio Stracca, 2007. "A Speed Limit Monetary Policy Rule for the Euro Area," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(1), pages 21-41, 03.
  20. Sala, Luca & Söderström, Ulf & Trigari, Antonella, 2008. "Monetary Policy Under Uncertainty in an Estimated Model with Labour Market Frictions," CEPR Discussion Papers 6826, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  21. Elmar Mertens, 2008. "Managing Beliefs about Monetary Policy under Discretion?," Working Papers 08.02, Swiss National Bank, Study Center Gerzensee.
  22. Dotsey, Michael & Hornstein, Andreas, 2003. "Should a monetary policymaker look at money?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 547-579, April.
  23. Noah Williams & Andrew Levin & Alexei Onatski, 2005. "Monetary Policy under Uncertainty in Micro-Founded Macroeconometric Models," Computing in Economics and Finance 2005, Society for Computational Economics 478, Society for Computational Economics.
  24. Alex Cukierman & Francesco Lippi, 2003. "Endogenous Monetary Policy with Unobserved Potential Output," CEIS Research Paper 26, Tor Vergata University, CEIS.
  25. John C. Williams, 2005. "Robust estimation and monetary policy with unobserved structural change," Proceedings, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), pages 53-81.
  26. Gerali, Andrea & Lippi, Francesco, 2003. "Optimal Control and Filtering in Linear Forward-looking Economies: A Toolkit," CEPR Discussion Papers 3706, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  27. Camba-Mendez, Gonzalo & Rodriguez-Palenzuela, Diego, 2003. "Assessment criteria for output gap estimates," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 529-562, May.
  28. Carl Walsh, 2001. "Speed Limit Policies: The Output Gap and Optimal Monetary Policy," CESifo Working Paper Series 609, CESifo Group Munich.
  29. Duca, John V. & VanHoose, David D., 2004. "Recent developments in understanding the demand for money," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 247-272.
  30. Pierpaolo Benigno & Michael Woodford, 2006. "Optimal Inflation Targeting Under Alternative Fiscal Regimes," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile, Central Bank of Chile 407, Central Bank of Chile.
  31. Andrés González Gómez & Lavan Mahadeva & Diego Rodríguez & Luis Eduardo Rojas, . "Monetary Policy Forecasting in a DSGE Model with Data that is Uncertain, Unbalanced and About the Future," Borradores de Economia 559, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  32. Lorenzo Bini Smaghi, 2006. "Economic Forecasting and Monetary Policy," Vierteljahrshefte zur Wirtschaftsforschung / Quarterly Journal of Economic Research, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 75(2), pages 54-64.
  33. Pelin Ilbas, 2007. "Optimal Monetary Policy Rules for the Euro Area in a DSGE Framework," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2006 59, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
  34. Kosuke Aoki, 2006. "Price-Level Determination Under Dispersed Information And Monetary Policy," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 57(3), pages 406-425.
  35. Gunter Coenen & Andrew Levin & Volker Wieland, 2001. "Data uncertainty and the role of money as an information variable for monetary policy," Finance and Economics Discussion Series, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) 2001-54, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  36. Athanasios Orphanides & John C. Williams, 2008. "Imperfect Knowledge And The Pitfalls Of Optimal Control Monetary Policy," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile, Central Bank of Chile 499, Central Bank of Chile.
  37. Bernhardsen, Tom & Eitrheim, Øyvind & Jore, Anne Sofie & Røisland, Øistein, 2004. "Real-time Data for Norway: Challenges for Monetary Policy," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2004,26, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  38. Clare Lombardelli & James Proudman & James Talbot, 2002. "Committees versus individuals: an experimental analysis of monetary policy decision-making," Bank of England working papers 165, Bank of England.
  39. Lippi, Francesco & Neri, Stefano, 2003. "Information Variables for Monetary Policy in a Small Structural Model of the Euro Area," CEPR Discussion Papers 4125, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  40. Filippo Altissimo & Eugenio Gaiotti & Alberto Locarno, 2004. "Is money informative? Evidence from a large model used for policy analysis," Macroeconomics, EconWPA 0404018, EconWPA, revised 24 Apr 2004.
  41. Jarkko Jääskelä & Tony Yates, 2005. "Monetary policy and data uncertainty," Bank of England working papers 281, Bank of England.
  42. Elmar Mertens, 2010. "Discreet Commitments and Discretion of Policymakers with Private Information," 2010 Meeting Papers 763, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  43. Tas, Bedri Kamil Onur, 2011. "An explanation for the price puzzle: Asymmetric information and expectation dynamics," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 259-275, June.
  44. Lombardo, Giovanni, 2004. "Inflation targeting rules and welfare in an asymmetric currency area," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2004,04, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  45. A. Hakan Kara, 2003. "Optimal Monetary Policy, Commitment, and Imperfect Credibility," Working Papers 0301, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
  46. George Kapetanios & Tony Yates, 2010. "Estimating time variation in measurement error from data revisions: an application to backcasting and forecasting in dynamic models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(5), pages 869-893.
  47. Nicoletti-Altimari, Sergio, 2001. "Does money lead inflation in the euro area?," Working Paper Series, European Central Bank 0063, European Central Bank.
  48. Cukierman, Alex, 2007. "The Limits of Transparency," CEPR Discussion Papers 6475, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  49. Lombardelli, Clare & Proudman, James & Talbot, James, 2005. "Committees Versus Individuals: An Experimental Analysis of Monetary Policy Decision Making," MPRA Paper 823, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  50. Aoki, Kosuke, 2006. "Optimal commitment policy under noisy information," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 81-109, January.
  51. Lavan Mahadeva, 2007. "A model of market surprises," Bank of England working papers 327, Bank of England.
  52. Christian Jensen, 2006. "Expectations, Learning, and Discretionary Policymaking," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 2(4), December.
  53. Svensson, Lars E O, 2009. "Transparency under Flexible Inflation Targeting: Experiences and Challenges," CEPR Discussion Papers 7213, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  54. Walsh, Carl E., 2004. "Implications of a Changing Economic Structure for the Strategy of Monetary Policy," Santa Cruz Center for International Economics, Working Paper Series, Center for International Economics, UC Santa Cruz qt84g1q1g6, Center for International Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
  55. Queijo von Heideken, Virginia, 2008. "Monetary Policy Regimes and the Volatility of Long-Term Interest Rates," Working Paper Series 220, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  56. Baxter, Brad & Graham, Liam & Wright, Stephen, 2011. "Invertible and non-invertible information sets in linear rational expectations models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 295-311, March.
  57. Orlowski, Lucjan T. & Rybinski, Krzysztof, 2006. "Implications of ERM2 for Poland's monetary policy," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 346-365, December.
  58. Seong-Hoon Kim, 2011. "Sequential Action and Beliefs under Partially Observable DSGE Environments," CDMA Working Paper Series 201116, Centre for Dynamic Macroeconomic Analysis.
  59. Nelson, Edward & Nikolov, Kalin, 2001. "UK Inflation in the 1970s and 1980s: The Role of Output Gap Mismeasurement," CEPR Discussion Papers 2999, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  60. Laurence H. Meyer & Eric T. Swanson & Volker W. Wieland, 2001. "NAIRU Uncertainty and Nonlinear Policy Rules," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(2), pages 226-231, May.
  61. Manfred Borchert, . "The Changing Character of the European Banking Market," Working Papers 201169, Institute of Spatial and Housing Economics, Munster Universitary.
  62. Michael Woodford, 2006. "How Important is Money in the Conduct of Monetary Policy?," Working Papers, Queen's University, Department of Economics 1104, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  63. Nimark, Kristoffer P., 2003. "Indicator Accuracy and Monetary Policy: Is Ignorance Bliss?," Working Paper Series 157, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  64. International Monetary Fund, 2005. "Inflation Targeting and Output Growth," IMF Working Papers 05/89, International Monetary Fund.
  65. Blake, Andrew P., 2004. "Open loop time consistency for linear rational expectations models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 21-27, January.
  66. Nicholas Apergis & Stephen M. Miller & Alexandros Panethimitakis & Athanassios Vamvakidis, 2005. "Inflation Targeting and Output Growth: Evidence from Aggregate European Data," Working papers 2005-06, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
  67. Lindbeck, Assar, 2002. "The European Social Model: Lessons for Developing Countries," Working Paper Series, Research Institute of Industrial Economics 581, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  68. Takeshi Kimura & Kosuke Aoki, 2009. "Central Bank's Two-Way Communication with the Public and Inflation Dynamics," 2009 Meeting Papers, Society for Economic Dynamics 108, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  69. Marc Giannoni, 2006. "Robust Optimal Policy in a Forward-Looking Model with Parameter and Shock Uncertainty," NBER Working Papers 11942, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  70. Guido Lorenzoni, 2006. "A Theory of Demand Shocks," NBER Working Papers 12477, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  71. Swanson, Eric T., 2006. "Optimal nonlinear policy: signal extraction with a non-normal prior," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 185-203, February.
  72. John C. Williams & Andrew T. Levin, 2003. "Robust Monetary Policy with Competing Reference Models," Computing in Economics and Finance 2003 291, Society for Computational Economics.
  73. Efrem Castelnuovo, 2003. "Squeezing the Interest Rate Smoothing Weight with a Hybrid Expectations Model," Working Papers 2003.6, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  74. Frank Smets & Raf Wouters, 2002. "Monetary policy in an estimated stochastic dynamic general equilibrium model of the Euro area," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Mar.
  75. Manfred Borchert, . "The Impact of Banking Behaviour on Monetary Strategy in Europe," Working Papers 201160, Institute of Spatial and Housing Economics, Munster Universitary.
  76. Lavan Mahadeva & Alex Muscatelli, 2005. "National Accounts Revisions and Output Gap Estimates in a Model of Monetary Policy with Data Uncertainty," Discussion Papers, Monetary Policy Committee Unit, Bank of England 14, Monetary Policy Committee Unit, Bank of England.
  77. Demosthenes N. Tambakis, 2007. "Fear of Floating and Social Welfare," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 3(3), pages 183-204, September.
  78. Kilponen, Juha & Leitemo, Kai, 2011. "Transmission lags and optimal monetary policy," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 565-578, April.
  79. Yuriy Gorodnichenko & Matthew D. Shapiro, 2006. "Monetary Policy When Potential Output is Uncertain: Understanding the Growth Gamble of the 1990s," NBER Working Papers 12268, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  80. Eric Mayer & Johann Scharler, 2010. "Noisy Information, Interest Rate Shocks and the Great Moderation," Economics working papers 2010-07, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
  81. Borchert, Manfred, 2003. "The changing character of the European banking market," Beiträge zur angewandten Wirtschaftsforschung 1, Center of Applied Economic Research Münster (CAWM), University of Münster.
  82. Lippi, Francesco & Neri, Stefano, 2007. "Information variables for monetary policy in an estimated structural model of the euro area," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 54(4), pages 1256-1270, May.
  83. Mats Persson & Agnar Sandmo, 2005. "Taxation and Tournaments," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 7(4), pages 543-559, October.
  84. Marc P. Giannoni & Jean Boivin, 2005. "DSGE Models in a Data-Rich Environment," Computing in Economics and Finance 2005, Society for Computational Economics 431, Society for Computational Economics.
  85. Alberto Locarno, 2006. "Imperfect knowledge, adaptive learning and the bias against activist monetary policies," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers), Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area 590, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  86. Juillard, Michel & Karam, Philippe & Laxton, Douglas & Pesenti, Paolo, 2006. "Welfare-based monetary policy rules in an estimated DSGE model of the US economy," Working Paper Series, European Central Bank 0613, European Central Bank.
  87. Gerlach, Stefan & Svensson, Lars E O, 2002. "Money and Inflation in the Euro-Area: A Case for Monetary Indicators?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3392, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  88. Sra Chuenchoksan & Don Nakornthab & Surach Tanboon, 2008. "Uncertainty in the Estimation of Potential Output and Implications for the Conduct of Monetary Policy," Working Papers 2008-04, Economic Research Department, Bank of Thailand.
  89. Orlowski, Lucjan T., 2004. "Money rules for monetary convergence to the euro," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 817-837, October.
  90. Francesco Bianchi, 2009. "Regime Switches, Agents’ Beliefs, and Post-World War II U.S. Macroeconomic Dynamics," 2009 Meeting Papers, Society for Economic Dynamics 198, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  91. Hilde Bjørnland & Leif Brubakk & Anne Jore, 2008. "Forecasting inflation with an uncertain output gap," Empirical Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 35(3), pages 413-436, November.
  92. Andreas Hornstein & Michael Dotsey, 2002. "Should optimal discretionary monetary policy look at money?," Working Paper, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond 02-04, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
  93. Siok Kun, Sek, 2009. "The impacts of economic structures on the performance of simple policy rules in a small open economy," MPRA Paper 25065, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  94. Richard G. Anderson, 2006. "Replicability, real-time data, and the science of economic research: FRED, ALFRED, and VDC," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 81-93.
  95. Manfred Borchert, . "The Impact of Banking Behaviour on Monetary Strategy," Working Papers 201166, Institute of Spatial and Housing Economics, Munster Universitary.
  96. Nicoletta Batini & Joe Pearlman, 2002. "Too Much Too Soon: Instability and Indeterminacy with Forward-Looking Rules," Computing in Economics and Finance 2002 182, Society for Computational Economics.
  97. Steffen Ahrens & Stephen Sacht, 2011. "Estimating a High-Frequency New-Keynesian Phillips Curve," Kiel Working Papers 1686, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  98. Paul Hubert, 2010. "Monetary Policy, Imperfect Information and the Expectations Channel," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/f4rshpf3v1u, Sciences Po.
  99. Heimonen, Kari, 2010. "Money and equity returns in the Euro area," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 152-169.
  100. Eric Swanson, 2000. "On Signal Extraction and Non-Certainty-Equivalence in Optimal Monetary Policy Rules," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1085, Econometric Society.
  101. Guido Lorenzoni, 2007. "News Shocks and Optimal Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 12898, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  102. Traficante, Guido, 2012. "Uncertain potential output: implications for monetary policy in small open economy," Dynare Working Papers 22, CEPREMAP.
  103. Francesco Lippi & Stefano Neri, 2004. "Information variables for monetary policy in a small structural model," DNB Staff Reports (discontinued) 120, Netherlands Central Bank.
  104. Borchert, Manfred, 2005. "The impact of banking behaviour on monetary strategy in Europe," Beiträge zur angewandten Wirtschaftsforschung 13, Center of Applied Economic Research Münster (CAWM), University of Münster.
  105. Hans M. Amman & David A. Kendrick, 2003. "A Classification System for Economic Stochastic Control Models," Computing in Economics and Finance 2003 114, Society for Computational Economics.
  106. Michael Woodford, 2007. "The Case for Forecast Targeting as a Monetary Policy Strategy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(4), pages 3-24, Fall.
  107. Jean-Paul Lam, 2010. "The Importance of Commitment in the New Keynesian Model," Working Papers 1008, University of Waterloo, Department of Economics, revised Jul 2010.
  108. Lauri Kajanoja, 2004. "Money as an indicator variable for monetary policy when money demand is forward looking," Macroeconomics, EconWPA 0405003, EconWPA.
  109. Jean-Philippe Cayen & Simon van Norden, 2002. "La fiabilité des estimations de l'écart de production au Canada," Working Papers 02-10, Bank of Canada.
  110. al-Nowaihi, Ali & Stracca, Livio, 2002. "Non-standard central bank loss functions, skewed risks, and certainty equivalence," Working Paper Series, European Central Bank 0129, European Central Bank.
  111. Delle Chiaie, Simona, 2009. "Monetary policy and potential output uncertainty: a quantitative assessment," Working Paper Series, European Central Bank 1130, European Central Bank.
  112. Bedri Kamil Onur Tas, 2014. "Why is Inflation Targeting Successful?: Analysis of Inflation Target Transparency," EcoMod2014 6725, EcoMod.
  113. William T. Gavin & Rachel J. Mandal, 2000. "Forecasting inflation and growth: do private forecasts match those of policymakers?," Working Papers 2000-026, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  114. Marc P. Giannoni, 2007. "Robust optimal monetary policy in a forward-looking model with parameter and shock uncertainty," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(1), pages 179-213.
  115. Liam Graham & Stephen Wright, 2006. "Inspecting the noisy mechanism: the stochastic growth model with partial information," Computing in Economics and Finance 2006 207, Society for Computational Economics.
  116. Fabio Milani, 2004. "Monetary Policy with a Wider Information Set: a Bayesian Model Averaging Approach," Macroeconomics, EconWPA 0401004, EconWPA.
  117. Vitor Gaspar & Anil K. Kashyap, 2006. "Stability First: Reflections Inspired by Otmar Issing's Success as the ECB's Chief Economist," NBER Working Papers 12277, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  118. Clare Lombardelli & James Proudman & James Talbot, 2005. "Committees Versus Individuals: An Experimental Analysis of Monetary Policy Decision-Making," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 1(1), May.
  119. Kilponen , Juha & Milne, Alistair, 2007. "The lending channel under optimal choice of monetary policy," Research Discussion Papers 33/2007, Bank of Finland.
  120. Paul Hubert, 2009. "An Empirical Review of Federal Reserve’s Informational Advantage," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE) 2009-03, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).