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Citations for "Does Entry Regulation Hinder Job Creation? Evidence from the French Retail Industry"

by Bertrand, Marianne & Kramarz, Francis

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  1. Prantl, Susanne & Spitz-Oener, Alexandra, 2009. "How Does Entry Regulation Influence Entry into Self-Employment and Occupational Mobility?," IZA Discussion Papers 4221, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. L. Guiso & F. Schivardi, 2006. "What determines entrepreneurial clusters?," Working Paper CRENoS 200616, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
  3. Ken-Ichi Shimomura & Jacques-François Thisse, 2012. "Competition among the big and the small," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 43(2), pages 329-347, 06.
  4. Edward L. Glaeser & Stuart S. Rosenthal & William C, Strange, 2010. "Urban Economics and Entrepreneurship," NBER Chapters, in: Cities and Entrepreneurship National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Viviano, Eliana, 2008. "Entry regulations and labour market outcomes: Evidence from the Italian retail trade sector," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 1200-1222, December.
  6. Francesco Bripi, 2013. "The role of regulation on entry: evidence from the Italian provinces," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 932, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  7. MATSUURA Toshiyuki & SUGANO Saki, 2009. "The Effect of Relaxation of Entry Restrictions for Large-Scale Retailers on SME Performance: Evidence from Japanese Retail Census," Discussion papers 09054, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  8. Monique Ebell & Christian Haefke, 2008. "Product market deregulation and the U.S. employment miracle," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19569, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  9. Mitsukuni Nishida, 2014. "The costs of zoning regulations in retail chains: the case of the City Planning Act of 1968 in Japan," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 305-328, June.
  10. Cristina Mocci & Stefania Pozzuoli & Francesca Romagnoli & Cristina Tinti, 2014. "Deregulation and growth in Italy," Working Papers 3, Department of the Treasury, Ministry of the Economy and of Finance.
  11. Maarten Goos, 2004. "Sinking the blues: the impact of shop closing hours on labor and product markets," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19925, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  12. Natália Pimenta Monteiro, 2004. "Regulatory reform and the Portuguese banking labour market: two decades later," NIPE Working Papers 10/2004, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
  13. Suresh de Mel & David McKenzie & Christopher Woodruff, 2013. "The Demand for, and Consequences of, Formalization among Informal Firms in Sri Lanka," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(2), pages 122-50, April.
  14. Da Rin, Marco & Di Giacomo, Marina & Sembenelli, Alessandro, 2011. "Entrepreneurship, firm entry, and the taxation of corporate income: Evidence from Europe," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(9-10), pages 1048-1066, October.
  15. Janiak, Alexandre, 2013. "Structural unemployment and the costs of firm entry and exit," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 1-19.
  16. Christopher A. Pissarides, 2006. "Lisbon Five Years Later. What future for European employment and growth?," CEP Occasional Papers 20, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  17. Hernan Moscoso Boedo & Pablo D'Erasmo, 2010. "Financial Structure, Informality and Development," 2010 Meeting Papers 319, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  18. Laura Alfaro & Anusha Chari, 2009. "India Transformed? Insights from the Firm Level 1988-2005," Harvard Business School Working Papers 10-030, Harvard Business School.
  19. Ebell, Monique & Haefke, Christian, 2008. "Product Market Deregulation and the U.S. Employment Miracle," Economics Series 223, Institute for Advanced Studies.
  20. Xu Yi & Nezih Guner & Gustavo Ventura, 2005. "Macroeconomic Implications of Size Dependent Policies," 2005 Meeting Papers 530, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  21. D׳Erasmo, Pablo N. & Moscoso Boedo, Hernan J. & Şenkal, Aslı, 2014. "Misallocation, informality, and human capital: Understanding the role of institutions," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 122-142.
  22. Philippe Aghion & Robin Burgess & Stephen Redding & Fabrizio Zilibotti, 2006. "The Unequal Effects of Liberalization: Evidence from Dismantling the License Raj in India," CEP Discussion Papers dp0728, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  23. Koeniger, Winfried & Prat, Julien, 2006. "Employment Protection, Product Market Regulation and Firm Selection," IZA Discussion Papers 1960, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  24. Richard Rogerson, 2008. "Structural Transformation and the Deterioration of European Labor Market Outcomes," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 116(2), pages 235-259, 04.
  25. Messina, Julián, 2004. "Institutions and service employment: a panel study for OECD countries," Working Paper Series 0320, European Central Bank.
  26. Monique Ebell & Christian Haefke, 2002. "Product Market Deregulation and Labor Market Outcomes," Working Papers 02.08, Swiss National Bank, Study Center Gerzensee.
  27. Olivier Blanchard, 2004. "The Economic Future of Europe," NBER Working Papers 10310, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  28. Klapper, Leora & Laeven, Luc & Rajan, Raghuram, 2006. "Entry regulation as a barrier to entrepreneurship," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 591-629, December.
  29. Brandão, António & Correia-da-Silva, João & Pinho, Joana, 2014. "Spatial competition between shopping centers," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 234-250.
  30. Borland, Jeff, 2005. "Impacts of Employment Regulation: Towards an Evaluation Framework," Occasional Papers 06/7, Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand.
  31. Andrei Shleifer & Simeon Djankov & Edward L. Glaeser & Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez de Silanes, 2003. "The New Comparative Economics," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm355, Yale School of Management.
  32. Christopher A. Pissarides, 2003. "Unemployment in Britain: A European Success Story," CESifo Working Paper Series 981, CESifo Group Munich.
  33. Schivardi, Fabiano & Viviano, Eliana, 2008. "Entry Barriers in Retail Trade," CEPR Discussion Papers 6637, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  34. Steven J. Davis & Magnus Henrekson, 2004. "Tax Effects on Work Activity, Industry Mix and Shadow Economy Size: Evidence from Rich-Country Comparisons," NBER Working Papers 10509, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  35. Marie-Laure Allain & Claire Chambolle & Stéphane Turolla & Sofia Villas-Boas, 2013. "The Impact of Retail Mergers on Food Prices: Evidence from France," Working Papers hal-00920460, HAL.
  36. Timothy Besley & Robin Burgess, 2002. "Can labour regulation hinder economic performance? Evidence from India," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 3779, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  37. Maican, Florin & Orth, Matilda, 2012. "A Dynamic Analysis of Regulation and Productivity in Retail Trade," Working Paper Series 939, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 12 Apr 2014.
  38. Nicolas Melissas, 2007. "The Trader, the Market Maker, his Guru and her Information," Working Papers 0702, Centro de Investigacion Economica, ITAM.
  39. Célérier, C., 2009. "Forecasting inflation in France," Working papers 262, Banque de France.
  40. Kudoh, Noritaka & Sasaki, Masaru, 2009. "Employment and hours of work," Discussion paper series. A 204, Graduate School of Economics and Business Administration, Hokkaido University.
  41. Alexander W. Hoffmaister, 2006. "Barriers to Retail Competition and Prices," IMF Working Papers 06/231, International Monetary Fund.
  42. Christian A. L. Hilber & Wouter Vermeulen, 2013. "The impact of supply constraints on house prices in England," Working Papers 2013/28, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
  43. Garicano, Luis & Lelarge, Claire & Van Reenen, John, 2013. "Firm Size Distortions and the Productivity Distribution: Evidence from France," CEPR Discussion Papers 9495, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  44. Susanne Prantl & Alexandra Spitz-Oener, 2013. "Interacting Product and Labor Market Regulation and the Impact of Immigration on Native Wages," Working Paper Series of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods 2013_22, Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods.
  45. Cheshire, Paul C. & Hilber, Christian & Kaplanis, Ioannis, 2012. "Land use regulation and productivity - Land matters: Evidence from a UK Supermarket chain," Working Papers 2072/196650, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  46. David Kaplan & Eduardo Piedra & Enrique Seira, 2006. "Are Burdensome Registration Procedures an Important Barrier on Firm Creation? Evidence from Mexico," Discussion Papers 06-013, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  47. Griffith, Rachel & Harrison, Rupert & Macartney, Gareth, 2006. "Product Market Reforms, Labour Market Institutions and Unemployment," CEPR Discussion Papers 5599, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  48. Beck, Jonathan & Grajek, Michal & Wey, Christian, 2005. "Hypermarket Competition and the Diffusion of Retail Checkout Barcode Scanning," CEPR Discussion Papers 5386, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  49. Raymond Fisman & Virginia Sarria-Allende, 2004. "Regulation of Entry and the Distortion of Industrial Organization," NBER Working Papers 10929, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  50. Susanne Prantl, 2012. "The impact of firm entry regulation on long-living entrants," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 61-76, July.
  51. Guadalupe, Maria, 2005. "Product Market Competition, Returns to Skill and Wage Inequality," IZA Discussion Papers 1556, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  52. Carlo Cambini & Laura Rondi, 2011. "Independence, Investment and Political Interference: Evidence from the European Union," RSCAS Working Papers 2011/42, European University Institute.
  53. Randolph Luca Bruno & Maria Bytchkova & Saul Estrin, 2013. "Institutional Determinants of New Firm Entry in Russia: A Cross-Regional Analysis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(5), pages 1740-1749, December.
  54. Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2009. "Imports, Pass-Through, and the Structure of Retail Markets," Kiel Working Papers 1556, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  55. Emek Basker, 2007. "The Causes and Consequences of Wal-Mart's Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 177-198, Summer.
  56. Vives, Xavier, 2006. "Innovation and competitive pressure," IESE Research Papers D/634, IESE Business School.
  57. repec:hal:journl:halshs-00718627 is not listed on IDEAS
  58. Emek Basker, 2005. "Job Creation or Destruction? Labor Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(1), pages 174-183, February.
  59. Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2012. "Imports and the structure of retail markets," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1431-1455, November.
  60. Aghion, Philippe & Blundell, Richard & Griffith, Rachel & Howitt, Peter & Prantl, Susanne, 2006. "The effects of entry on incumbent innovation and productivity," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Competition and Innovation SP II 2006-18, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  61. Angrist, Joshua & Kugler, Adriana, 2002. "Protective or Counter-Productive? Labor Market Institutions and the Effect Immigration on EU Natives," IZA Discussion Papers 433, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  62. Leora Klapper & Luc Laeven & Raghuram Rajan, 2004. "Business Environment and Firm Entry: Evidence from International Data," NBER Working Papers 10380, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  63. Da Rin, M. & Di Giacomo, M. & Sembenelli, A., 2008. "Firm Entry Dynamics and Taxation of Corporate Profits: Evidence from Europe (Replaced by DP 2009-61)," Discussion Paper 2008-65, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  64. Maarten Goos, 2004. "Sinking the Blues: the Impact of Shop Closing Hours on Labor and Product Markets," CEP Discussion Papers dp0664, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  65. Evgeny Yakovlev & Ekaterina Zhuravskaya, 2007. "Deregulation of Business," Working Papers w0097, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).
  66. Andersson, Martin & Henrekson, Magnus, 2014. "Local Competitiveness fostered through Local Institutions for Entrepreneurship," CIRCLE Electronic Working Papers 2014/4, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
  67. Horst Feldmann, 2008. "Business regulation and labor market performance around the world," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 201-235, April.
  68. Joshua Angrist & Adriana Kugler, 2001. "Protective or Counter-Productive? European Labor Market Institutions and the Effect of Immigrants on EU Natives," NBER Working Papers 8660, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  69. Scarpetta, Stefano & Fally, Thibault & Aghion, Philippe, 2007. "Credit Constraints as a Barrier to the Entry and Post-Entry Growth of Firms," Scholarly Articles 4554208, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  70. Yuen Ping Ho & Poh Kam Wong, 2005. "Availability of Financing, Regulatory Business Costs and National Entrepreneurial Propensity," Industrial Organization 0504025, EconWPA, revised 03 Aug 2005.
  71. Luisito Bertinelli & Olivier Cardi & Partha Sen, 2012. "Deregulation Shock In Product Market And Unemployment," Working papers 221, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics.
  72. Chiara Criscuolo & Peter N. Gal & Carlo Menon, 2014. "The Dynamics of Employment Growth: New Evidence from 18 Countries," CEP Discussion Papers dp1274, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  73. Mitton, Todd, 2008. "Institutions and concentration," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 367-394, June.
  74. Fernandes, Ana & Ferreira, Priscila & Winters, L. Alan, 2013. "Firm Entry Deregulation, Competition and Returns to Education and Skill," CEPR Discussion Papers 9550, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  75. Roberto M Samaniego, 2006. "A Theory of Entry and Exit with Embodied Rate of Technical Change," 2006 Meeting Papers 765, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  76. Fernando Borraz & Juan Dubra & Daniel Ferrés & Leandro Zipitría, 2014. "Supermarket Entry and the Survival of Small Stores," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 73-93, February.
  77. Lei Fang & Richard Rogerson, 2007. "Policy Analysis in a Matching Model with Intensive and Extensive Margins," NBER Working Papers 13007, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  78. Patricia Crifo & Hind Sami, 2008. "Entrepreneurship, technological change and endogenous returns to ability," Post-Print hal-00243037, HAL.
  79. Maican, Florin & Orth, ´Matilda, 2013. "Entry Regulations, Product Differentiation and Determinants of Market Structure," Working Paper Series 984, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  80. Susanne Prantl & Alexandra Spitz-Oener, 2009. "How does entry regulation influence entry into self-employment and occupational mobility?," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2009-034, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  81. de Andrade, Gustavo Henrique & Bruhn, Miriam & McKenzie, David, 2013. "A helping hand or the long arm of the law ? experimental evidence on what governments can do to formalize firms," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6435, The World Bank.
  82. Guiso, Luigi & Schivardi, Fabiano, 2005. "Learning to be an Entrepreneur," CEPR Discussion Papers 5290, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  83. Silvia Ardagna & Annamaria Lusardi, 2010. "Explaining International Differences in Entrepreneurship: The Role of Individual Characteristics and Regulatory Constraints," NBER Chapters, in: International Differences in Entrepreneurship, pages 17-62 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  84. Marie-Laure Allain & Claire Chambolle & Stéphane Turolla & Sofia Villas-Boas, 2013. "The impact of retail mergers on food prices: evidence from France," Working Papers 181943, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France.
  85. Charlotte Senftleben-König, 2014. "Product Market Deregulation and Employment Outcomes: Evidence from the German Retail Sector," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2014-013, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  86. Fernando Ferreira & Joseph Gyourko, 2007. "Do Political Parties Matter? Evidence from U.S. Cities," NBER Working Papers 13535, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  87. Jonathan Beck & Michal Grajek & Christian Wey, 2007. "Estimating level effects in diffusion of a new technology: Barcode scanning at the checkout counter," ESMT Research Working Papers ESMT-07-002, ESMT European School of Management and Technology.
  88. Bénabou, Roland & Kramarz, Francis & Prost, Corinne, 2005. "The French Zones D'Education Prioritaire: Much Ado About Nothing?," CEPR Discussion Papers 5085, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  89. Maican, Florin & Orth, Matilda, 2008. "Productivity Dynamics and the Role of “Big-Box” Entrants in Retailing," Working Papers in Economics 328, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  90. Natália Monteiro, 2009. "Regulatory reform and labour earnings in Portuguese banking," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 557-574, June.
  91. Philippe Askenazy & Eve Caroli & Jérôme Gautié, 2009. "Un panorama des bas salaires et de la qualité de l'emploi peu qualifié en France," PSE Working Papers halshs-00567693, HAL.
  92. Messina, Julian, 2003. "Sectoral Structure and Entry Regulations," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 154, Royal Economic Society.
  93. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00590719 is not listed on IDEAS
  94. Sachs, Andreas, 2010. "A Bayesian approach to determine the impact of institutions on the unemployment rate," ZEW Discussion Papers 10-058, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  95. Clémence Berson, 2012. "Does Competition Induce Hiring Equity?," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 12019, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
  96. Laura Alfaro & Andrew Charlton, 2007. "International Financial Integration and Entrepreneurial Firm Activity," NBER Working Papers 13118, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  97. Messina, Julián, 2003. "The role of product market regulations in the process of structural change," Working Paper Series 0217, European Central Bank.
  98. Fernanda Llussa, 2011. "Determinants of Entrepreneurship: Are Women Different?," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp555, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
  99. Pfeiffer, Friedhelm, 2005. "Existenzgründungen: Ein Weg zur Beschäftigungsförderung?," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-71, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  100. Lei Fang & Richard Rogerson, 2009. "Product market regulation and market work: a benchmark analysis," Working Paper 2009-07, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  101. Carlo Cambini & Laura Rondi, 2010. "Regulatory Independence and Political Interference: Evidence from EU Mixed-Ownership Utilities’ Investment and Debt," Working Papers 2010.69, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  102. Richard Rogerson, 2006. "Understanding Differences in Hours Worked," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 9(3), pages 365-409, July.
  103. Magruder, Jeremy R., 2013. "Can minimum wages cause a big push? Evidence from Indonesia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 100(1), pages 48-62.
  104. Christian Haefke & Monique Ebell, 2004. "The Missing Link: Product Market Regulation, Collective Bargaining and the European Unemployment Puzzle," 2004 Meeting Papers 759, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  105. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00567693 is not listed on IDEAS
  106. Andrew Eckert & Douglas West, 2008. "Firm Survival and Chain Growth in a Privatized Retail Liquor Store Industry," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 1-18, February.
  107. Italo Colantone, 2012. "Trade openness, real exchange rates and job reallocation: evidence from Belgium," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 148(4), pages 669-706, December.
  108. Wallenius, Johanna, 2013. "Social security and cross-country differences in hours: A general equilibrium analysis," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 2466-2482.
  109. Fabiano Schivardi & Eliana Viviano, 2007. "Entry barriers in Italian retail trade," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 616, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  110. USHCHEV, Philip & SLOEV, Igor & THISSE, Jacques-François & ,, 2013. "Do we go shopping downtown or in the ‘burbs’? Why not both?," CORE Discussion Papers 2013057, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  111. Joshua D. Angrist & Adriana D. Kugler, 2001. "Protective or counter-productive? Labor market institutions and the effect of immigration on EU natives," Economics Working Papers 587, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  112. Kaplan, David S. & Piedra, Eduardo & Seira, Enrique, 2011. "Entry regulation and business start-ups: Evidence from Mexico," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(11), pages 1501-1515.
  113. Roberto M Samaniego, 2004. "Does Employment Protection Inhibit Technical Diffusion?," Computing in Economics and Finance 2004 51, Society for Computational Economics.
  114. Becht, Marco & Mayer, Colin & Wagner, Hannes, 2006. "Where Do Firms Incorporate?," CEPR Discussion Papers 5875, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  115. Charlotte Senftleben & Hanna Wielandt, 2012. "The Polarization of Employment in German Local Labor Markets," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2012-013, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  116. Silvia Ardagna & Annamaria Lusardi, 2008. "Explaining International Differences in Entrepreneurship: The Role of Individual Characteristics and Regulatory Constraints," NBER Working Papers 14012, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  117. Feldmann, Horst, 2009. "Business regulation, labor force participation and employment in industrial countries," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 61(3), pages 238-260.
  118. Morisset, Jacques & Lumenga Neso, Olivier, 2002. "Administrative barriers to foreign investment in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2848, The World Bank.
  119. Bernardo Bortolotti & Carlo Cambini & Laura Rondi, 2011. "Regulatory Independence, Ownership and Firm Value: The Role of Political Institutions," RSCAS Working Papers 2011/43, European University Institute.
  120. Silvia Ardagna & Annamaria Lusardi, 2009. "Where does regulation hurt? Evidence from new businesses across countries," NBER Working Papers 14747, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.