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Citations for "Who Creates Jobs? Small vs. Large vs. Young"

by John Haltiwanger & Ron S. Jarmin & Javier Miranda

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  1. Randy A. Becker & Ronald J. Shadbegian & Carl Pasurka, 2013. "Do Environmental Regulations Disproportionately Affect Small Businesses? Evidence from the Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures Survey," NCEE Working Paper Series 201206, National Center for Environmental Economics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, revised Aug 2013.
  2. Daron Acemoglu & Ufuk Akcigit & Nicholas Bloom & William R. Kerr, 2013. "Innovation, Reallocation and Growth," PIER Working Paper Archive 13-018, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  3. Colciago, Andrea & Rossi, Lorenza, 2011. "Endogenous Market Structures and Labor Market Dynamics," MPRA Paper 29311, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Cho, Yoon Y. & Honorati, Maddalena, 2013. "Entrepreneurship Programs in Developing Countries: A Meta Regression Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 7333, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Sven-Olov Daunfeldt & Niklas Elert & Niklas Rudholm, 2013. "Start-ups and firm in-migration: evidence from the Swedish wholesale industry," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 51(2), pages 479-494, October.
  6. Ejaz Ghani & William R. Kerr & Stephen D. O'Connell, 2011. "Who Creates Jobs?," World Bank Other Operational Studies 10072, The World Bank.
  7. Poschke, Markus, 2008. "Who Becomes an Entrepreneur? Labor Market Prospects and Occupational Choice," IZA Discussion Papers 3816, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. A. Kerem Coşar & Nezih Guner & James Tybout, 2011. "Firm dynamics, job turnover, and wage distributions in an open economy," Working Papers 2011-06, Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados (IMDEA) Ciencias Sociales.
  9. Florian MAYNERIS, 2011. "A new perspective on the firm size-growth relationship: Shape of profits, investment and heterogeneous credit constraints," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2011044, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  10. Page, John & Soderbom, Mans, 2012. "Is Small Beautiful? Small Enterprise, Aid and Employment in Africa," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  11. Navaretti , Giorgio Barba & Castellani , Davide & Pieri , Fabio, 2013. "Age and firm growth. Evidence from three European countries," CIRCLE Electronic Working Papers 2013/41, Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy.
  12. Oberhofer, Harald & Vincelette, Gallina A, 2013. "Determinants of job creation in eleven new EU member states : evidence from firm level data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6533, The World Bank.
  13. Moen, Espen R. & Yashiv, Eran, 2012. "Worker Matching and Firm Value," IZA Discussion Papers 6657, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Jason DeBacker & Bradley Heim & Vasia Panousi & Shanthi Ramnath & Ivan Vidangos, 2012. "The properties of income risk in privately held businesses," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-69, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  15. Fariha Kamal & C.J. Krizan, 2012. "Decomposing Aggregate Trade Flows: New Evidence from U.S. Traders," Working Papers 12-17, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  16. Andersson, Martin & Braunerhjelm, Pontus & Thulin, Per, 2011. "Creative Destruction and Productivity – entrepreneurship by type, sector and sequence," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 256, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  17. Costas Arkolakis, 2009. "A Unified Theory of Firm Selection and Growth," CESifo Working Paper Series 2679, CESifo Group Munich.
  18. Freund, Caroline & Pierola, Martha Denisse, 2012. "Export superstars," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6222, The World Bank.
  19. Andrew Atkeson & Ariel T. Burstein, 2011. "Aggregate Implications of Innovation Policy," NBER Working Papers 17493, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Teresa C. Fort & John Haltiwanger & Ron S. Jarmin & Javier Miranda, 2013. "How Firms Respond to Business Cycles: The Role of Firm Age and Firm Size," Working Papers 13-30, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  21. Edward L. Glaeser & Sari Pekkala Kerr & William R. Kerr, 2012. "Entrepreneurship and Urban Growth: An Empirical Assessment with Historical Mines," NBER Working Papers 18333, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. John Sutherland Earle & Almos Telegdy, 2011. "Who Creates Jobs in Hungary? The Role of Entering, Exiting and Continuing Firms Before and During the Crisis," Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market 1108, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  23. Lucia Foster & Cheryl Grim & John Haltiwanger, 2013. "Reallocation In The Great Recession: Cleansing Or Not?," Working Papers 13-42, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  24. Thorsten Drautzburg, 2013. "Entrepreneurial tail risk: implications for employment dynamics," Working Papers 13-45, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  25. Christopher Reicher, 2011. "Hiring chains and the dynamic behavior of job and worker flows," Kiel Working Papers 1709, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  26. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Kyle Handley & Ron S. Jarmin & Josh Lerner & Javier Miranda, 2013. "Private Equity, Jobs, and Productivity," NBER Working Papers 19458, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  27. LOPES BENTO Cindy & HOTTENROTT Hanna, 2012. "(International) R&D Collaboration and SMEs: The effectiveness of targeted public R&D support schemes," CEPS/INSTEAD Working Paper Series 2012-36, CEPS/INSTEAD.
  28. Leo Kaas & Philipp Kircher, 2011. "Efficient Firm Dynamics in a Frictional Labor Market," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2011-01, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
  29. Francesco Bogliacino & Matteo Lucchese, 2011. "Access to finance for innovation: the role of venture capital and the stock market," ECONOMIA E POLITICA INDUSTRIALE, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2011(4), pages 165-183.
  30. Altomonte, Carlo & Ottaviano, Gianmarco, 2011. "The role of international production sharing in EU productivity and competitiveness," EIB Papers 3/2011, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
  31. Burcu Duygan-Bump & Alexey Levkov & Judit Montoriol-Garriga, 2010. "Financing constraints and unemployment: evidence from the Great Recession," Risk and Policy Analysis Unit Working Paper QAU10-6, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  32. Sasan Bakhtiari, 2013. "Firm Size Evolution and Outsourcing," Discussion Papers 2013-07, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales.
  33. Hernan Moscoso Boedo & Pablo D'Erasmo, 2011. "Entrepreneurship and Endogenous Volatility," 2011 Meeting Papers 901, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  34. Mário Centeno & Álvaro A. Novo, 2012. "Excess worker turnover and fixed-term contracts: Causal evidence in a two-tier system," Working Papers w201205, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
  35. Andrea Colciago & Lorenza Rossi, 2013. "Firm Entry, Endogenous Markups and the Dynamics of the Labor Share of Income," DNB Working Papers 367, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  36. Peter Huber & Harald Oberhofer & Michael Pfaffermayr, 2014. "Job creation and the intra-distribution dynamics of the firm size distribution," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(1), pages 171-197, February.
  37. Melvyn G. Coles & Dale T. Mortensen, 2012. "Equilibrium Labor Turnover, Firm Growth and Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 18022, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  38. Brown, J. David & Earle, John S., 2013. "Do SBA Loans Create Jobs?," IZA Discussion Papers 7544, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  39. Paroma Sanyal & Catherine L. Mann, 2010. "The financial structure of startup firms: the role of assets, information, and entrepreneur characteristics," Working Papers 10-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  40. Kenneth A. Couch & Douglas J. Besharov & David Neumark, 2013. "Spurring Job Creation in Response to Severe Recessions: Reconsidering Hiring Credits," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(1), pages 142-171, 01.
  41. Freund, Caroline & Rijkers, Bob, 2014. "Episodes of unemployment reduction in rich, middle-income, and transition economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6891, The World Bank.
  42. Klapper, Leora & Richmond, Christine, 2011. "Patterns of business creation, survival and growth : evidence from Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5828, The World Bank.
  43. Peter Mihalyi, 2012. "The Causes of Slow Growth in Hungary during the Post-Communist Transformation Period," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1216, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  44. Haltiwanger, John, 2011. "Firm dynamics and productivity growth," EIB Papers 5/2011, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
  45. Philippe Aghion & Ufuk Akcigit & Peter Brown, 2013. "What Do We Learn From Schumpeterian Growth Theory?," PIER Working Paper Archive 13-026, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  46. Irwin Feller, 2013. "Performance measures as forms of evidence for science and technology policy decisions," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 38(5), pages 565-576, October.
  47. Robert W. Fairlie, 2013. "Entrepreneurship, Economic Conditions, and the Great Recession," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 207-231, 06.
  48. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Ron S. Jarmin & Josh Lerner & Javier Miranda, 2011. "Private Equity and Employment," NBER Working Papers 17399, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  49. Fairlie, Robert W. & Lofstrom, Magnus, 2013. "Immigration and Entrepreneurship," IZA Discussion Papers 7669, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  50. Max Nathan, 2013. "Top Team Demographics, Innovation and Business Performance: Findings from English Firms and Cities 2008-9," SERC Discussion Papers 0129, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
  51. Leslie A. Martin & Shanthi Nataraj & Ann Harrison, 2014. "In with the Big, Out with the Small: Removing Small-Scale Reservations in India," NBER Working Papers 19942, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  52. Fritsch, Michael, 2013. "New Business Formation and Regional Development: A Survey and Assessment of the Evidence," Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship, now publishers, vol. 9(3), pages 249-364, February.
  53. Tåg, Joacim & Åstebro, Thomas & Thompson, Peter, 2013. "Hierarchies, the Small Firm Effect, and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Swedish Microdata," Working Paper Series 954, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  54. Missaka Warusawitharana, 2012. "Profitability and the lifecycle of firms," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-63, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  55. Huber, Peter & Oberhofer, Harald & Pfaffermayr , Michael, 2013. "Who Creates Jobs? Estimating Job Creation Rates at the Firm Level," Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2013-5, University of Salzburg.
  56. David Berger, 2012. "Countercyclical Restructuring and Jobless Recoveries," 2012 Meeting Papers 1179, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  57. Almos Telegdy, 2013. "Employment Adjustment during the Global Crisis: Differences between State-Owned and Private Enterprises," Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market 1311, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  58. Bartelsman, Eric & Haltiwanger, John C. & Scarpetta, Stefano, 2009. "Cross-Country Differences in Productivity: The Role of Allocation and Selection," IZA Discussion Papers 4578, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  59. Clarke, George & Li, Yue & Xu, Lixin Colin, 2013. "Business environment, economic agglomeration and job creation around the world," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6706, The World Bank.
  60. Michael Fritsch & Florian Noseleit, 2013. "Start-ups, long- and short-term survivors, and their contribution to employment growth," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 719-733, September.
  61. Monica Garcia-Perez & Christopher Goetz & John Haltiwanger & Kristin Sandusky, 2013. "Don't Quit Your Day Job: Using Wage and Salary Earnings to Support a New Business," Working Papers 13-45, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  62. Ruud de Mooij & Michael Keen, 2012. "'Fiscal Devaluation' and Fiscal Consolidation: The VAT in Troubled Times," NBER Working Papers 17913, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  63. Andrea Colciago & Lorenza Rossi, 2011. "Endogenous Market Structures and Labor Market Dynamics (New version)," Quaderni di Dipartimento 155, University of Pavia, Department of Economics and Quantitative Methods.
  64. Berthou, Antoine & Vicard, Vincent, 2013. "Firms' export dynamics: experience vs. size," Working Paper Series 1616, European Central Bank.
  65. Paige Ouimet & Rebecca Zarutskie, 2013. "Who works for startups? The relation between firm age, employee age, and growth," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2013-75, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  66. Manuel Adelino & Antoinette Schoar & Felipe Severino, 2013. "House Prices, Collateral and Self-Employment," NBER Working Papers 18868, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  67. Dan Corry & Anna Valero & John Van Reenen, 2011. "UK economic performance since 1997: growth, productivity and jobs," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 47521, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  68. Mercedes Delgado & Michael E. Porter & Scott Stern, 2012. "Clusters, Convergence, and Economic Performance," NBER Working Papers 18250, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  69. Abo-Zaid, Salem, 2012. "Net job creation in the U.S. economy: lessons from monthly data, 1950-2011," MPRA Paper 39084, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  70. Dorothea Schäfer & Susan Steiner, 2014. "Financial Development and Employment: Evidence from Transition Countries," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1390, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  71. Criscuolo, Chiara & Martin, Ralf & Overman, Henry & Van Reenen, John, 2012. "The Causal Effects of an Industrial Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 6323, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  72. colciago, andrea & Rossi, Lorenza, 2011. "Endogenous Market Structures and the Business Cycle," MPRA Paper 29629, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  73. Strauss, Hubert, 2011. "Productivity and growth in Europe: Editor's introduction," EIB Papers 1/2011, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
  74. Bryon Higgins, 1986. "Debt, financial stability, and public policy (Symposium overview)," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 1-14.
  75. Lawless, Martina, 2013. "Age or Size? Determinants of Job Creation," Research Technical Papers 02/RT/13, Central Bank of Ireland.
  76. Michael Keen & Ruud A. de Mooij, 2012. "Fiscal Devaluation and Fiscal Consolidation," IMF Working Papers 12/85, International Monetary Fund.
  77. Caroline Freund, 2014. "Rethinking the National Export Initiative," Policy Briefs PB14-7, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  78. Naomi Hausman, 2012. "University Innovation, Local Economic Growth, and Entrepreneurship," Working Papers 12-10, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  79. Hernan Moscoso Boedo & Pablo D'Erasmo, 2013. "Intangibles and Endogenous Firm Volatility over the Business Cycle," 2013 Meeting Papers 97, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  80. Gary Clyde Hufbauer & Martin Vieiro, 2011. "US Tax Discrimination Against Large Corporations Should Be Discarded," Policy Briefs PB11-16, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  81. Ayyagari, Meghana & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2011. "Small vs. young firms across the world : contribution to employment, job creation, and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5631, The World Bank.
  82. Klapper, Leora & Love, Inessa & Randall, Douglas, 2014. "New firm registration and the business cycle," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6775, The World Bank.
  83. Erzo G.J. Luttmer, 2012. "Slow convergence in economies with firm heterogeneity," Working Papers 696, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  84. J. David Brown & John S. Earle, 2012. "Do SBA Loans Create Jobs? Estimates from Universal Panel Data and Longitudinal Matching Methods," Working Papers 12-27, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  85. Anders Bornhäll & Sven-Olov Daunfeldt & Niklas Rudholm, 2013. "Sleeping Gazelles: High profits but no growth," SPRU Working Paper Series 2013-10, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.
  86. Sasan Bakhtiari, 2012. "Small Business Redefined: A Quasi-Linear Fuzzy Classification of Firm Size," Discussion Papers 2012-24, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales.
  87. Ghani, Ejaz & Kerr, William R. & O'Connell, Stephen D., 2013. "The exceptional persistence of India's unorganized sector," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6454, The World Bank.
  88. Ralf R. Meisenzahl, 2011. "Verifying the state of financing constraints: evidence from U.S. business credit contracts," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2011-04, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  89. Francesco Bogliacino & Matteo Lucchese & Mario Pianta, 2011. "Job creation in business services: innovation, demand, polarisation," JRC-IPTS Working Papers on Corporate R&D and Innovation 2011-04, Institute of Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre.
  90. Philippe Aghion & Ufuk Akcigit & Peter Howitt, 2013. "What Do We Learn From Schumpeterian Growth Theory?," NBER Working Papers 18824, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  91. Jed Kolko & David Neumark & Marisol Cuellar Mejia, 2011. "What Do Business Climate Indexes Teach Us About State Policy and Economic Growth?," NBER Working Papers 16968, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  92. Allen Tran, 2013. "Customer Driven Establishment Dynamics and Allocative Efficiency," 2013 Meeting Papers 115, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  93. Sasan Bakhtiari, 2011. "Size Evolution and Outsourcing: Theory and Evidence from Australian Manufacturing," Discussion Papers 2012-08, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales.
  94. Nicolas Veron, 2012. "Financial Reform after the Crisis: An Early Assessment," Working Paper Series WP12-2, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  95. Uppenberg, Kristian, 2011. "Economic growth in the US and the EU: a sectoral decomposition," EIB Papers 2/2011, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
  96. Aysegül Sahin & Sagiri Kitao & Anna Cororaton & Sergiu Laiu, 2011. "Why small businesses were hit harder by the recent recession," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 17(July).
  97. Michael Fritsch, 2011. "The effect of new business formation on regional development - Empirical evidence, interpretation, and avenues for further research," Jena Economic Research Papers 2011-006, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  98. Marco Corsino & Roberto Gabriele & Sandro Trento, 2010. "Job flows in Italian SMEs: a longitudinal analysis of growth, size and age," DISA Working Papers 1008, Department of Computer and Management Sciences, University of Trento, Italy, revised 22 Dec 2010.
  99. Elias Dinopoulos & Wolf-Heimo Grieben & Fuat Sener, 2012. "The Conundrum of Recovery Policies: Growth or Jobs?," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2012-03, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
  100. Aghion, Philippe & Akcigit, Ufuk & Howitt, Peter, 2013. "What Do We Learn From Schumpeterian Growth Theory?," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 298, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  101. Jim Wilkinson & Jon Christensson, 2011. "Can the supply of small business loans be increased?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II.
  102. Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov & Lang, Åsa & Macuchova, Zuzana & Rudholm, Niklas, 2011. "Firm Growth in the Retail and Wholesale Trade Sectors – Evidence from Sweden," HUI Working Papers 50, HUI Research.
  103. Krzysztof Szczygielski & Wojciech Grabowski & Richard Woodward, 2013. "External vs Internal Determinants of Firm Technology Strategy:Evidence from the Polish Services Sector," CASE Network Studies and Analyses 0454, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
  104. Arnold, Jens & Scarpetta, Stefano & Nicoletti, Giuseppe, 2011. "Regulation, resource reallocation and productivity growth," EIB Papers 4/2011, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
  105. Judit Montoriol-Garriga & J. Christina Wang, 2011. "The Great Recession and bank lending to small businesses," Working Papers 11-16, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
  106. Dimitri Bellas & Jean-Charles Bricongne & Lionel Fontagné & Vincent Vicard & Guillaume Gaulier, 2010. "Une analyse de la dynamique des exportations des sociétés françaises de 2000 à 2009," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 438(1), pages 239-265.
  107. Poschke, Markus, 2013. "The Decision to Become an Entrepreneur and the Firm Size Distribution: A Unifying Framework for Policy Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 7757, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  108. Nasr, Sahar & Rostom, Ahmed, 2013. "SME contributions to employment, job creation, and growth in the Arab world," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6682, The World Bank.
  109. Coad, Alex & Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958- & Teruel, Mercedes, 2013. "Innovation and firm growth: Does firm age play a role?," Working Papers 2072/211886, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
  110. John Haltiwanger, 2012. "Job Creation and Firm Dynamics in the United States," Innovation Policy and the Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(1), pages 17 - 38.
  111. Pietro Moncada-Paterno-Castello, 2011. "Companies' growth in the EU: What is research and innovation policy's role?," JRC-IPTS Working Papers on Corporate R&D and Innovation 2011-03, Institute of Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre.
  112. Immo Schott, 2013. "Startups, Credit, and the Jobless Recovery," 2013 Meeting Papers 340, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  113. Lucia Foster & Cheryl Grim, 2010. "Characteristics of the Top R&D Performing Firms in the U.S.: Evidence from the Survey of Industrial R&D," Working Papers 10-33, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  114. World Bank, 2012. "Republic of Lebanon--Good Jobs Needed : The Role of Macro, Investment, Education, Labor and Social Protection Policies," World Bank Other Operational Studies 13217, The World Bank.