Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

Citations for "The Politics of 1992: Fiscal Policy and European Integration"

by Persson, Torsten & Tabellini, Guido

For a complete description of this item, click here. For a RSS feed for citations of this item, click here.
as in new window
  1. Edwards, Jeremy & Keen, Michael, 1996. "Tax competition and Leviathan," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 113-134, January.
  2. George Halkos & Nickolas Kyriazis, 2006. "Is tax competition harmful and is the EU an optimal tax area?," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 163-177, April.
  3. PERALTA, Susana & VAN YPERSELE, Tanguy, . "Coordination of capital taxation among asymmetric countries," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1971, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  4. Gino Gancia & Paolo Epifani, 2007. "On Globalization and the Growth of Governments," 2007 Meeting Papers 217, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  5. Besley, Timothy & Coate, Stephen, 2003. "Centralized versus decentralized provision of local public goods: a political economy approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(12), pages 2611-2637, December.
  6. Lars P. Feld & Justina A.V. Fischer & Gebhard Kirchgässner, 2006. "The Effect of Direct Democracy on Income Redistribution: Evidence for Switzerland," CESifo Working Paper Series 1837, CESifo Group Munich.
  7. Ihori, Toshihiro & Yang, C.C., 2009. "Interregional tax competition and intraregional political competition: The optimal provision of public goods under representative democracy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(3), pages 210-217, November.
  8. Lockwood, Ben & Makris, Miltiadis, 2004. "Tax Incidence, Majority Voting And Capital Market Integration," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 712, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  9. Frédéric Robert-Nicoud & Federica Sbergami, 1999. "Endogenous Regional Policy in a Model of Agglomeration," IHEID Working Papers 02-2001, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
  10. Oliver Lorz & Gerald Willmann, 2008. "Enlargement versus Deepening: The Trade-off Facing Economic Unions," CESifo Working Paper Series 2455, CESifo Group Munich.
  11. Günther Rehme, 2007. "Economic Growth and (Re-)Distributive Policies in a Non-cooperative World," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 91(1), pages 1-40, May.
  12. Andreas Haufler & Alexander Klemm & Guttorm Schjelderup, 2006. "Economic Integration and Redistributive Taxation: A Simple Model with Ambiguous Results," CESifo Working Paper Series 1853, CESifo Group Munich.
  13. Arjan Lejour & Harrie Verbon, 1996. "Capital mobility, wage bargaining, and social insurance policies in an economic union," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 3(4), pages 495-513, October.
  14. Eckhard Janeba & Guttorm Schjelderup, 2009. "The Welfare Effects of Tax Competition Reconsidered: Politicians and Political Institutions," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(539), pages 1143-1161, 07.
  15. Laussel, Didier, 2002. "Delegation effects in representative democracies: do they foster extremism?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 191-205, August.
  16. Clemens Fuest & Bernd Huber, 2001. "Tax Competition and Tax Coordination in a Median Voter Model," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 107(1), pages 97-113, April.
  17. Haufler, Andreas & Klemm, Alexander & Schjelderup, Guttorm, 2008. "Redistributive taxation, multinational enterprises, and economic integration," Discussion Papers 2008/4, Department of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics.
  18. Oliver Lorz & Gerald Willmann, 2013. "Size versus scope: on the trade-off facing economic unions," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 247-267, April.
  19. Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P. & van Ypersele, Tanguy, 2005. "Market size and tax competition," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 25-46, September.
  20. Huizinga, Harry, 1999. "A two-region model of redistribution, migration and international trade," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(3), pages 335-354, March.
  21. Tim Krieger, 2001. "Intergenerational Redistribution and Labor Mobility: A Survey," Departmental Discussion Papers 106, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
  22. Troeger, Vera, 2012. "De Facto Capital Mobility, Equality, and Tax Policy in Open Economies," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 84, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
  23. Lorz, Oliver, 1998. "Capital mobility, tax competition, and lobbying for redistributive capital taxation," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 265-279, May.
  24. Bacchetta, Philippe & Espinosa, Maria Paz, 1995. "Information sharing and tax competition among governments," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 103-121, August.
  25. Rodrik, Dani & van Ypersele, Tanguy, 2001. "Captial mobility, distributive conflict and international tax coordination," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 57-73, June.
  26. Lagerlöf, Johan N.M., 2003. "Are we Better Off if our Politicians Have More Information?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3884, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  27. Economides, George & Miaouli, Natasha, 2006. "Federal transfers, environmental policy and economic growth," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 680-699, December.
  28. Lejour, A. & Verbon, H., 1993. "Capital Mobility and Social Insurance in an Integrated Market," Papers 9379, Tilburg - Center for Economic Research.
  29. Kessler, Anke S & Lulfesmann, Christoph & Myers, Gordon M, 2002. "Redistribution, Fiscal Competition, and the Politics of Economic Integration," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(4), pages 899-923, October.
  30. Signe Krogstrup, 2002. "What do Theories of Tax Competition Predict for Capital Taxes in EU Countries? A Review of the Tax Competition Literature," IHEID Working Papers 05-2002, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies.
  31. Paola Conconi & Paola Riezman & Carlo Perroni, 2008. "Is Partial Tax Harmonization Desirable?," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/98550, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  32. Ludema, Rodney D & Wooton, Ian, 1998. "Economic Geography and the Fiscal Effects of Regional Integration," CEPR Discussion Papers 1822, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  33. Boccard, Nicolas & van Ypersele, Tanguy & Wunsch, Pierre, 2003. "Comparative advantage and social protection," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 247-264, June.
  34. Seija Parviainen, 1998. "Redistribution and Risk Sharing in EMU," Discussion Papers 159, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).
  35. Huizinga, H.P., 1994. "Migration and income transfers in the presence of labor quality externalities," Discussion Paper 1994-104, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  36. Michela Redoano & Kimberley Ann Scharf, 2001. "The Political Economy of Policy Centralization: Direct Versus Representative Democracy," CESifo Working Paper Series 602, CESifo Group Munich.
  37. GABSZEWICZ, J. J. & van YPERSELE, T., . "Social protection and political competition," CORE Discussion Papers RP -1230, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  38. Wilson, John Douglas & Janeba, Eckhard, 2005. "Decentralization and international tax competition," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(7), pages 1211-1229, July.
  39. Kollintzas, T. & Philippopoulos, A. & Vasillatos, V., 1999. "Is Tax Policy Coordination Necessary?," Athens University of Economics and Business 110, Athens University of Economics and Business, Department of International and European Economic Studies.
  40. Genser, Bernd & Haufler, Andreas, 1996. "Tax competition, tax coordination and tax harmonization: The effects of EMU," Munich Reprints in Economics 20319, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  41. Colin Jennings, 2008. "Intra-Group Competition and Inter-Group Conflict: An Application to Northern Ireland," Working Papers 0809, University of Strathclyde Business School, Department of Economics.
  42. Hamlin, Alan & Jennings, Colin, 2007. "Leadership and conflict," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 49-68, September.
  43. Leo Wangler & Juan-Carlos Altamirano-Cabrera & Hans-Peter Weikard, 2013. "The political economy of international environmental agreements: a survey," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 387-403, September.
  44. Esteller-More, Alex & Sole-Olle, Albert, 2001. "Vertical income tax externalities and fiscal interdependence: evidence from the US," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2-3), pages 247-272, April.
  45. Rupayan Pal & Ajay Sharma, 2011. "Political competition and leadership in tax competition," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2011-024, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  46. Lejour, Arjan M. & Verbon, Harrie A. A., 1998. "Source-based versus residence-based capital income taxes in a dynamic model," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 529-541, August.
  47. Lorz, Jens Oliver, 1993. "Der Wettbewerb um international mobiles Kapital: Auswirkungen auf die nationale Finanzpolitik und die intertemporale Kapitalallokation," Kiel Working Papers 608, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  48. Pantelis Kammas, 2009. "Strategic fiscal interaction among OECD countries," EERI Research Paper Series EERI_RP_2009_11, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
  49. Rupayan Pal & Ajay Sharma, 2011. "Competition for foreign capital: Endogenous objective, public investment and tax," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2011-021, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  50. Kangoh Lee, 2012. "Why is mobile capital taxed?," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 107(2), pages 157-181, October.
  51. Fuest, Clemens & Huber, Bernd, 2001. "Why is there so little tax coordination? The role of majority voting and international tax evasion," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2-3), pages 299-317, April.
  52. Andreas Haufler & Alexander Klemm & Guttorm Schjelderup, 2009. "Economic integration and the relationship between profit and wage taxes," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 138(3), pages 423-446, March.
  53. Rodrik, D. & Ypersele, T.P.M.C. van, 1999. "When does International Capital Mobility Require Tax Coordination?," Discussion Paper 1999-27, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  54. Andreas Haufler & Alexander Klemm & Guttorm Schjelderup, 2006. "Globalisation and the Mix of Wage and Profit Taxes," CESifo Working Paper Series 1678, CESifo Group Munich.
  55. Paolo Epifani & Gino Gancia, 2005. "Openness, government size and the terms of trade," Economics Working Papers 915, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Jan 2008.
  56. Ogura, Laudo M., 2006. "A note on tax competition, attachment to home, and underprovision of public goods," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 252-258, March.
  57. Agnès Bénassy-Quéré & Lionel Fontagné & Amina Lahrèche-Revil, 2000. "Foreign Direct Investment and the Prospects for Tax Co-Ordination in Europe," Working Papers 2000-06, CEPII research center.
  58. Toshihiro Ihori & C. C. Yang, 2008. "Interregional Tax Competition and Intraregional Political Competition: The Optimal Provision of Public Goods," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-553, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  59. Eggert, Wolfgang, 2001. "Capital tax competition with socially wasteful government consumption," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 517-529, September.
  60. Harms, Philipp & Zink, Stefan, 2003. "Limits to redistribution in a democracy: a survey," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 651-668, November.
  61. Hyun Park & Apostolis Philippopoulos, 2003. "Choosing Club Membership under Tax Competition and Free Riding," CESifo Working Paper Series 985, CESifo Group Munich.
  62. Park, Hyun & Philippopoulos, Apostolis, 2003. "On the dynamics of growth and fiscal policy with redistributive transfers," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(3-4), pages 515-538, March.
  63. Borsky, Stefan & Raschky, Paul A., 2012. "A Spatial Econometric Analysis of Compliance with an International Environmental Agreement on an Open Access Resource," 2012 Conference (56th), February 7-10, 2012, Freemantle, Australia 124425, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
  64. Eckhard Janeba & Guttorm Schjelderup, 2002. "Why Europe Should Love Tax Competition - and the U.S. Even More So," NBER Working Papers 9334, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  65. Atsushi Kawamoto, 2012. "An empirical analysis on intergovernmental strategic interaction in tax policy: Evidence from capital taxation in Japan," Discussion papers ron238, Policy Research Institute, Ministry of Finance Japan.
  66. Stahl, Dale O. & Turunen-Red, Arja H., 1995. "Tariff games: Cooperation with random variation in political regimes," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 215-238, June.
  67. Chu, Angus C. & Yang, C.C., 2012. "Fiscal centralization versus decentralization: Growth and welfare effects of spillovers, Leviathan taxation, and capital mobility," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 177-188.
  68. Jack Mintz, 1995. "Corporation tax: a survey," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 16(4), pages 23-68, November.
  69. Yu-Bong Lai, 2014. "Asymmetric tax competition in the presence of lobbying," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 66-86, February.
  70. Federico Etro, 2004. "The Political Economy of Fiscal and Monetary Unions," Giornale degli Economisti, GDE (Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia), Bocconi University, vol. 63(3-4), pages 289-328, December.
  71. Andre Fourcans & Thierry Warin, 2010. "Tax competition and information sharing in Europe: a signalling game," International Journal of Economics and Business Research, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 2(1/2), pages 76-86.
  72. Giovanni Pica, 2005. "Capital Markets Integration and Labor Market Institutions," CSEF Working Papers 144, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy, revised 01 Nov 2007.
  73. Feld, Lars P, 2000. " Tax Competition and Income Redistribution: An Empirical Analysis for Switzerland," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 105(1-2), pages 125-64, October.
  74. Michael Keen & Christos Kotsogiannis, 2003. "Leviathan and Capital Tax Competition in Federations," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 5(2), pages 177-199, 04.
  75. Hyun Park, 2006. "Expenditure Composition and Distortionary Tax for Equitable Economic Growth," IMF Working Papers 06/165, International Monetary Fund.
  76. Hans Pitlik, 2005. "Folgt die Steuerpolitik in der EU der Logik des Steuerwettbewerbs," Diskussionspapiere aus dem Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre der Universität Hohenheim 256/2005, Department of Economics, University of Hohenheim, Germany.
  77. Tobias König & Andreas Wagener, 2008. "(Post-)Materialist Attitudes and the Mix of Capital and Labour Taxation," CESifo Working Paper Series 2366, CESifo Group Munich.
  78. George Economides & Dimitris Papageorgiou & Apostolis Philippopoulos & Vanghelis Vassilatos, 2013. "Smaller Public Sectors in the Euro Area: Aggregate and Distributional Implications," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 59(3), pages 536-558, September.
  79. Angelopoulos, Konstantinos & Asimakopoulos, Stylianosulos & Malley, James, 2013. "The Optimal Distribution of the Tax Burden over the Business Cycle," SIRE Discussion Papers 2013-80, Scottish Institute for Research in Economics (SIRE).
  80. Yamamoto, Kazuhiro, 2008. "Location of industry, market size, and imperfect international capital mobility," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 518-532, September.
  81. Ypersele, T.P.M.C. van, 1998. "Coordination of Capital Taxation Among a Large Number of Asymmetric Countries," Discussion Paper 1998-137, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  82. Angelopoulos, Konstantinos & Economides, George & Kammas, Pantelis, 2009. "Do political incentives matter for tax policies? Ideology, opportunism and the tax structure," SIRE Discussion Papers 2009-09, Scottish Institute for Research in Economics (SIRE).
  83. Honkapohja, Seppo & Turunen-Red, Arja H., 2004. "Gains and losses from tax competition with migration," Working Papers 2004-01, University of New Orleans, Department of Economics and Finance.
  84. Zsolt Becsi, 1998. "Fiscal competition and reality: A time series approach," Working Paper 98-19, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  85. Roberta De Santis & Maria Cristina Mercuri & Claudio Vicarelli, 2001. "Taxes and Location of Foreign Direct Investments: an Empirical Analysys for the European Union Countries," ISAE Working Papers 24, ISTAT - Italian National Institute of Statistics - (Rome, ITALY).
  86. Michael Devereux & Simon Loretz, 2012. "What do we know about corporate tax competition?," Working Papers 1229, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
  87. repec:cge:warwcg:83 is not listed on IDEAS
  88. Lejour, A.M., 1995. "Social insurance and the completion of the internal market," Discussion Paper 1995-61, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  89. Gradstein, Mark, 2004. "Political Bargaining in a Federation: Buchanan meets Coase," CEPR Discussion Papers 4188, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  90. Muhammad Zakaria & Samreen Shakoor, 2011. "Relationship Between Government Size and Trade Openness: Evidence from Pakistan," Transition Studies Review, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 328-341, December.
  91. Philippe Bacchetta & María Espinosa, 2000. "Exchange-of-Information Clauses in International Tax Treaties," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 275-293, May.
  92. Harry Huizinga & Søren Bo Nielsen, . "The Political Economy of Capital Income and Profit Taxation in a Small Open Economy," EPRU Working Paper Series 97-01, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  93. Gradstein, Mark, 1999. "Optimal taxation and fiscal constitution," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 471-485, June.
  94. Osterloh, Steffen & Debus, Marc, 2012. "Partisan politics in corporate taxation," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 192-207.
  95. Hagen, Rune Jansen & Torsvik, Gaute, 2008. "Irreversible investments, dynamic inconsistency and policy convergence," Working Papers in Economics 02/07, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
  96. Lisa Grazzini & Alessandro Petretto, 2007. "Tax Competition between Unitary and Federal Countries," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 17-36, January.
  97. Marko Koethenbuerger, 2003. "Tax Competition in a Fiscal Union with Decentralized Leadership," CESifo Working Paper Series 943, CESifo Group Munich.
  98. Didier Laussel & Raymond Riezman, 2001. "The Sources of Protectionist Drift in Representative Democracies," CESifo Working Paper Series 426, CESifo Group Munich.
  99. Luis Angeles, . "Monetary Policy and the Stock Market: Some International evidence," Working Papers 2006_13, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
  100. Rehme, Günther, 2004. "Redistribution and Economic Growth in Integrated Economies," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 21580, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  101. Lai, Yu-Bong, 2010. "The political economy of capital market integration and tax competition," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 475-487, December.
  102. Piketty, Thomas, 1996. "A federal voting mechanism to solve the fiscal-externality problem," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 3-17, January.
  103. André Fourçans & Thierry Warin, 2001. "Tax Harmonization versus Tax Competition in Europe: A Game Theoretical Approach," Cahiers de recherche CREFE / CREFE Working Papers 132, CREFE, Université du Québec à Montréal.
  104. Muthukumara Mani & Per G. Fredriksson, 2001. "Trade Integration and Political Turbulence," IMF Working Papers 01/150, International Monetary Fund.
  105. Pal, Rupayan & Sharma, Ajay, 2013. "Endogenizing governments' objectives in tax competition," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 570-578.
  106. Adam, Antonis & Kammas, Pantelis & Lagou, Athina, 2011. "The effect of globalization on capital taxation: What have we learned after 20 years of empirical studies?," MPRA Paper 33382, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  107. Carl Gaigné & Stéphane Riou, 2007. "Globalization, Asymmetric Tax Competition, and Fiscal Equalization," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 9(5), pages 901-925, October.
  108. Hannu Piekkola, 1995. "Capital income taxation, tax criteria, and intergenerational welfare," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 62(3), pages 295-322, October.
  109. Haufler, Andreas & Klemm, Alexander & Schejederup, Guttorm, 2006. "Economic integration and redistribuitive taxation," Discussion Papers in Economics 912, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  110. Siqueira, Kevin & Sandler, Todd, 2007. "Terrorist backlash, terrorism mitigation, and policy delegation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(9), pages 1800-1815, September.
  111. Lisa Grazzini & Alessandro Petretto, 2013. "Federalism with Bicameralism," Working Papers - Economics wp2013_01.rdf, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa.
  112. Goodspeed, Timothy J., 1999. "Tax competition and tax structure in open federal economies: evidence from OECD countries with implications for the European Union," ZEW Discussion Papers 99-39, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  113. Michele Polo & Piero Tedeschi, . "Equilibrium and Renegotiation in Delegation Games," Working Papers 116, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  114. Adam, Antonis & Kammas, Pantelis & Lapatinas, Athanasios, 2013. "Income inequality and the tax structure: Evidence from developed and developing countries," MPRA Paper 46148, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  115. R. Emre Aytimur & Aristotelis Boukouras & Robert Schwager, 2012. "The Citizen-Candidate Model with Imperfect Policy Control," CESifo Working Paper Series 3900, CESifo Group Munich.
  116. Becker, Daniel Thomas, 2008. "Dynamic tax competition and public-sector modernisation," Thuenen-Series of Applied Economic Theory 56, University of Rostock, Institute of Economics.
  117. Franto Ricka, 2012. "The right-wing power of small countries," Working Papers 153, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Office of the Chief Economist.
  118. Gaëtan Nicodème, 2006. "Corporate tax competition and coordination in the European Union: What do we know? Where do we stand?," European Economy - Economic Papers 250, Directorate General Economic and Monetary Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  119. Angelopoulos, Konstantinos & Economides, George & Kammas, Pantelis, 2012. "Does cabinet ideology matter for the structure of tax policies?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 620-635.