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Citations for "Minimum LM Unit Root Test with One Structural Break"

by Junsoo Lee & Mark C. Strazicich

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  1. Solarin, Sakiru Adebola & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2013. "Trivariate causality between economic growth, urbanisation and electricity consumption in Angola: Cointegration and causality analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 876-884.
  2. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chang, Chun-Ping, 2008. "Unemployment hysteresis in OECD countries: Centurial time series evidence with structural breaks," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 312-325, March.
  3. Zeynel Abidin Ozdemir & Mehmet Balcilar & Aysit Tansel, 2013. "International Labour Force Participation Rates By Gender: Unit Root Or Structural Breaks?," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65, pages s142-s164, 05.
  4. Stern, David I. & Enflo, Kerstin, 2013. "Causality between energy and output in the long-run," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 135-146.
  5. Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Dar, Arif Billah & Bhanja, Niyati, 2013. "Oil price and exchange rates: A wavelet based analysis for India," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 414-422.
  6. Trachanas, Emmanouil & Katrakilidis, Constantinos, 2013. "The dynamic linkages of fiscal and current account deficits: New evidence from five highly indebted European countries accounting for regime shifts and asymmetries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 502-510.
  7. Bildirici, Melike E. & Kayıkçı, Fazıl, 2012. "Economic growth and electricity consumption in former Soviet Republics," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 747-753.
  8. Giorgio Canarella & Stephen M. Miller & Stephen K. Pollard, 2010. "Stochastic Convergence in the Euro Area," Working papers 2010-32, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
  9. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Ingrid Nielsen & Russell Smyth, 2010. "Is There a Natural Rate of Crime?," American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(2), pages 759-782, 04.
  10. John W. Dawson, 2007. "Regulation and the Macroeconomy," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(1), pages 15-36, 02.
  11. Václav Žďárek, 2012. "An Empirical Investigation of the Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis in European Transition Countries," Prague Economic Papers, University of Economics, Prague, vol. 2012(3), pages 257-276.
  12. Ghoshray, Atanu, 2011. "A reexamination of trends in primary commodity prices," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 242-251, July.
  13. Kalyoncu, Hüseyin & Kula, Ferit & Aslan, Alper, 2010. "The Validity of Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis in Middle East and Northern Africa Countries," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(4), pages 125-131, December.
  14. Nag, Biswajit & Mukherjee, Jaydeep, 2012. "The sustainability of trade deficits in the presence of endogenous structural breaks: Evidence from the Indian economy," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 519-526.
  15. Juan Carlos Cuestas & Karsten Steahr, 2011. "Fiscal shocks and budget balance persistence in the EU countries from Central and Eastern Europe," Working Papers 2011014, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics, revised May 2011.
  16. Carraro, Alessandro & Stefani, Gianluca, 2011. "Price Transmission in Three Italian Food Chains: A Structural Break Approach," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114317, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  17. Jing Li & Henry Thompson, 2010. "A Note on the Oil Price Trend and GARCH Shocks," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 159-166.
  18. De-Chih Liu, 2011. "Hysteresis Hypothesis in Job Creation and Destruction: Evidence from the U.S," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 12(2), pages 389-409, November.
  19. Tang, Chor Foon, 2010. "A note on the nonlinear wages-productivity nexus for Malaysia," MPRA Paper 24355, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  20. Alom, Fardous, 2011. "Economic Effects of Oil and Food Price Shocks in Asia and Pacific Countries: An Application of SVAR Model," 2011 Conference, August 25-26, 2011, Nelson, New Zealand 115346, New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
  21. Giorgio Canarella & Stephen M. Miller & Stephen K. Pollard, 2010. "Unit Roots and Structural Change: An Application to US House-Price Indices," Working Papers 1004, University of Nevada, Las Vegas , Department of Economics.
  22. Çetin, Tamer & Yasin Eryigit, Kadir, 2011. "Estimating the effects of entry regulation in the Istanbul taxicab market," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(6), pages 476-484, July.
  23. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2007. "Do health expenditures 'catch-up'? Evidence from OECD countries," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(10), pages 993-1008.
  24. Thornton, John, 2008. "Inflation and inflation uncertainty in Argentina, 1810-2005," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 98(3), pages 247-252, March.
  25. Mario Cerrato & Christian de Peretti & Chris Stewart, 2008. "Is the consumption-income ratio stationary? Evidence from a nonlinear panel unit root test for OECD and non-OECD countries," Working Papers 2008_27, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
  26. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Stephan Popp, 2013. "Size and power properties of structural break unit root tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(6), pages 721-728, February.
  27. Arghyrou, Michael G & Gregoriou, Andros & Kontonikas, Alexandros, 2007. "Do real interest rates converge? Evidence from the European Union," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2007/26, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  28. Tang, Chor Foon, 2010. "Savings-led growth theories: A time series analysis for Malaysia using the bootstrapping and time-varying causality techniques," MPRA Paper 27299, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  29. Mei-Se Chien, 2010. "Structural Breaks and the Convergence of Regional House Prices," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 77-88, January.
  30. Robert J. Sonora & Josip Tica, 2008. "Structural breaks and Purchasing Power Parity in the CEE and Post-War former Yugoslav States," EFZG Working Papers Series 0804, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Zagreb.
  31. Chor Foon Tang & Hooi Hooi Lean, 2011. "Revisit Feldstein-Horioka puzzle: evidence from Malaysia," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(3), pages 2237-2249.
  32. Taylan Taner Dogan, 2012. "Macroeconomic Variables and Unemployment: The Case of Turkey," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 2(1), pages 71-78.
  33. Antonio Paradiso & Saten Kumar & B. Bhaskara Rao, 2013. "The growth effects of education in Australia," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(27), pages 3843-3852, September.
  34. Kumar, Saten & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2010. "Coal Consumption and Economic Growth Revisited: Structural Breaks, Cointegration and Causality Tests for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 26151, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  35. Saten Kumar & Don J. Webber, 2013. "Australasian money demand stability: application of structural break tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(8), pages 1011-1025, March.
  36. Hooi Hooi Lean & Russell Smyth, 2006. "Asian Financial Crisis, Avian Flu And Terrorist Threats: Are Shocks To Malaysian Tourist Arrivals Permanent Or Transitory?," Development Research Unit Working Paper Series 11/06, Monash University, Department of Economics.
  37. Matteo Lanzafame, 2006. "The Nature of Regional Unemployment in Italy," Studies in Economics 0607, Department of Economics, University of Kent.
  38. Guglielmo Maria Caporale & John Hunter & Faek Menla Ali, 2013. "On the Linkages between Stock Prices and Exchange Rates: Evidence from the Banking Crisis of 2007-2010," CESifo Working Paper Series 4189, CESifo Group Munich.
  39. Serena Brianzoni & Roy Cerqueti, & Elisabetta Michetti, 2008. "A dynamic stochastic model of asset pricing with heterogeneous beliefs," Working Papers 46-2008, Macerata University, Department of Finance and Economic Sciences, revised Oct 2008.
  40. Chevallier, Julien & Alberola, Emilie & Chèze, Benoît, 2008. "European carbon prices fundamentals in 2005-2007: the effects of energy markets, temperatures and sectorial production," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/4229, Paris Dauphine University.
  41. Juan José Echavarría & Enrique López & Sergio Ocampo & Norberto Rodríguez, 2011. "Choques, instituciones laborales y desempleo en Colombia," ENSAYOS SOBRE POLÍTICA ECONÓMICA, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ESPE.
  42. Eduard Baumöhl & Štefan Lyócsa & Tomáš Výrost, 2011. "Volatility Regimes in Macroeconomic Time Series: The Case of the Visegrad Group," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 61(6), pages 530-544, December.
  43. Bredin, Don & Muckley, Cal, 2011. "An emerging equilibrium in the EU emissions trading scheme," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 353-362, March.
  44. Ketenci, Natalya, 2013. "The Feldstein–Horioka puzzle in groupings of OECD members: A panel approach," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 76-87.
  45. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:3:y:2008:i:2:p:1-11 is not listed on IDEAS
  46. Martin Schmidt, 2009. "The nonlinear behavior of competition: the impact of talent compression on competition," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 57-74, January.
  47. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Popp, Stephan, 2009. "Can the electricity market be characterised by asymmetric behaviour?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4364-4372, November.
  48. Emilie Alberola & Benoît Chèze & Julien Chevallier, 2008. "The EU Emissions Trading Scheme : Disentangling the Effects of Industrial Production and CO2 Emissions on Carbon Prices," EconomiX Working Papers 2008-12, University of Paris West - Nanterre la Défense, EconomiX.
  49. Lee, Junsoo & List, John A. & Strazicich, Mark C., 2006. "Non-renewable resource prices: Deterministic or stochastic trends?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 354-370, May.
  50. El Ghini, Ahmed & Saidi, Youssef, 2014. "Return and Volatility Spillovers in the Moroccan Stock Market During The Financial Crisis," MPRA Paper 53439, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  51. Ali Acaravci & Ilhan Ozturk, 2010. "Testing Purchasing Power Parity in Transition Countries: Evidence from Structural Breaks," The AMFITEATRU ECONOMIC journal, Academy of Economic Studies - Bucharest, Romania, vol. 12(27), pages 190-198, February.
  52. Frédérique BEC, Charbel BASSIL, 2008. "Federal Funds Rate Stationarity: New Evidence," THEMA Working Papers 2008-35, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
  53. Lyócsa, Štefan & Výrost, Tomáš & Baumöhl, Eduard, 2011. "Unit-root and stationarity testing with empirical application on industrial production of CEE-4 countries," MPRA Paper 29648, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  54. Chou, Win Lin, 2007. "Performance of LM-type unit root tests with trend break: A bootstrap approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 76-82, January.
  55. ALTINAY, Galip, 2005. "Structural Breaks in Long-Term Turkish Macroeconomic Data,1923-2003," Applied Econometrics and International Development, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 5(4).
  56. Dimitris Hatzinikolaou & Theodore Simos, 2013. "A new test for deficit sustainability and its application to US data," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 61-79, August.
  57. Tiwari, Aviral & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2011. "Does Defence Spending Stimulate Economic Growth in India?," MPRA Paper 30880, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 18 Apr 2011.
  58. Fábio Augusto Reis Gomes & Cleomar Gomes da Silva, 2006. "Hysteresis Vs. Nairu And Convergence Vs. Divergence: The Behavior Of Regional Unemployment Rates In Brazil," Anais do XXXIV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 34th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 161, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
  59. Luis C. Nunes, 2004. "LM-Type tests for a Unit Root Allowing for a Break in Trend," Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings 190, Econometric Society.
  60. Nikolaos Giannellis & Minoas Koukouritakis, 2011. "Behavioural equilibrium exchange rate and total misalignment: evidence from the euro exchange rate," Empirica, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 555-578, November.
  61. Ana Luisa Abras & Braulio Borges & Rodrigo Sekkel, 2004. "Breaking trend, Lagrange multiplier test statistic and the presence of a unit root in the Brazilian gross domestic product," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(6), pages 361-364.
  62. Svetlana Maslyuk & Russell Smyth, 2007. "Unit Root Properties of Crude Oil Spot and Futures Prices," Development Research Unit Working Paper Series 40-07, Monash University, Department of Economics.
  63. Mofya-Mukuka, Rhoda & Abdulai, Awudu, 2013. "Effects of Policy Reforms on Price Transmission in Coffee Markets: Evidence from Zambia and Tanzania," Food Security Collaborative Working Papers 171870, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
  64. Fukuda, Takashi & Dahalan, Jauhari, 2011. "“Finance-Growth-Crisis Nexus in India: Evidence from Cointegration and Causality Assessment” - L’interazione finanza-crescita-crisi in India: evidenze da una analisi di cointegrazione e causalit," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio di Genova, vol. 64(3), pages 297-328.
  65. Chan, Tze-Haw & Lean, Hooi Hooi & Hooy, Chee Wooi, 2013. "A Macro Assessment of China Effects on Malaysian Exports and Trade Balances," MPRA Paper 48801, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Aug 2013.
  66. de Mello, Luiz & Pisu, Mauro, 2010. "The bank lending channel of monetary transmission in Brazil: A VECM approach," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 50-60, February.
  67. Tsen, Wong Hock, 2011. "The real exchange rate determination: An empirical investigation," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 800-811, October.
  68. Chauvin, V. & Damette, O., 2010. "Wealth effects: the French case," Working papers 276, Banque de France.
  69. Ghoshray, Atanu & Johnson, Ben, 2010. "Trends in world energy prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 1147-1156, September.
  70. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2006. "Are Australia's tourism markets converging?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(10), pages 1153-1162.
  71. Pui Sun Tam & University of Macau, 2006. "Breaking trend panel unit root tests," Computing in Economics and Finance 2006 341, Society for Computational Economics.
  72. Assenmacher-Wesche, Katrin & Gerlach, Stefan & Sekine, Toshitaka, 2008. "Monetary Factors and Inflation in Japan," CEPR Discussion Papers 6650, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  73. Georgios Efthyvoulou, 2008. "Political Cycles in a Small Open Economy and the Effect of Economic Integration: Evidence from Cyprus," Birkbeck Working Papers in Economics and Finance 0808, Birkbeck, Department of Economics, Mathematics & Statistics.
  74. Emilie Alberola & Julien Chevallier, 2009. "European Carbon Prices and Banking Restrictions: Evidence from Phase I (2005-2007)," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 51-80.
  75. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Stephan Popp, 2009. "A New Unit Root Test with Two Structural Breaks in Level and Slope at Unknown Time," Economics Series 2009_11, Deakin University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance.
  76. Abhijit Sharma & Kelvin G Balcombe & Iain M Fraser, 2009. "Non-renewable resource prices: Structural breaks and long term trends," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(2), pages 805-819.
  77. Brittle, Shane, 2009. "Ricardian Equivalence and the Efficacy of Fiscal Policy in Australia," Economics Working Papers wp09-10, School of Economics, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
  78. Natalya Ketenci, N., 2010. "The Feldstein Horioka Puzzle by groups of OECD members: the panel approach," MPRA Paper 25848, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  79. Martin Schmidt, 2006. "On the evolution of competition: an application of nonlinear tests," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(1), pages 1-12.
  80. Singh, Prakash & Pandey, Manoj K., 2009. "Structural break, stability and demand for money in India," MPRA Paper 15425, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  81. Clark, Steven P. & Coggin, T. Daniel, 2011. "Was there a U.S. house price bubble? An econometric analysis using national and regional panel data," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 189-200, May.
  82. Acaravici, Ali, 2010. "Structural Breaks, Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence from Turkey," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(2), pages 140-154, July.
  83. Aviral Tiwari & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2014. "Revisiting Purchasing Power Parity for India using threshold cointegration and nonlinear unit root test," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 117-133, May.
  84. Tang, Chor Foon, 2008. "Is inflation always a monetary phenomenon in Malaysia?," MPRA Paper 19778, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  85. John Dawson & Steven Millsaps & Mark Strazicich, 2004. "Trend Breaks and Seasonality in the Yugoslav Black Market for Dollars, 1974-1987," Working Papers 04-04, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, revised 2005.
  86. Li-gang Liu & Laurent Pauwels & Andrew Tsang, 2007. "How Large is the Wealth Effect on Hong Kong¡¦s Consumption? Evidence from a Habit Formation Model of Consumption," Working Papers 0720, Hong Kong Monetary Authority.
  87. Lin, Chien-Hsiu, 2012. "The comovement between exchange rates and stock prices in the Asian emerging markets," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 161-172.
  88. Mohammad Karimi & Marcel-Cristian Voia, 2011. "Identifying Extreme Values of Exchange Market Pressure," Carleton Economic Papers 11-10, Carleton University, Department of Economics.
  89. Uz, Idil & Ketenci, Natalya, 2010. "Current account and relative prices: cointegration in the presence of structural breaks in emerging economies," MPRA Paper 27467, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  90. Steven Clark & T. Coggin, 2011. "Are U.S. stock prices mean reverting? Some new tests using fractional integration models with overlapping data and structural breaks," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 40(2), pages 373-391, April.
  91. Aleksandar Zaklan & Jan Abrell & Anne Neumann, 2011. "Stationarity Changes in Long-Run Fossil Resource Prices: Evidence from Persistence Break Testing," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1152, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  92. Nagayasu, Jun, 2011. "The threshold nonstationary panel data approach to forward premiums," MPRA Paper 34265, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  93. Hakan Kum, 2012. "The Impact of Structural Break(s) on the Validity of Purchasing Power Parity in Turkey: Evidence from Zivot-Andrews and Lagrange Multiplier Unit Root Tests," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 2(3), pages 241-245.
  94. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2006. "Are bilateral real exchange rates stationary? Evidence from Lagrange multiplier unit root tests for India," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(1), pages 63-70.
  95. Juncal Cunado & Fernando Perez de Gracia, 2006. "Real convergence in some Central and Eastern European countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(20), pages 2433-2441.
  96. Salah Nusair, 2012. "Nonlinear adjustment of Asian real exchange rates," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 221-246, August.
  97. Alper ASLAN, 2010. "The validity of PPP: evidence from Lagrange multiplier unit root tests for ASEAN countries," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(2), pages 1433-1443.
  98. Peter Sephton, 2005. "Predicting the equity premium with dividend ratios: a matter of balance," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 145-147.
  99. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:6:y:2008:i:29:p:1-13 is not listed on IDEAS
  100. Lean Hooi Hooi & Russell Smyth, 2007. "Are Asian real exchange rates mean reverting? Evidence from univariate and panel LM unit root tests with one and two structural breaks," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(16), pages 2109-2120.
  101. Lyócsa, Štefan & Výrost, Tomáš & Baumöhl, Eduard, 2011. "The instability of the correlation structure of the S&P 500," MPRA Paper 34160, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  102. Ayala, Astrid & Blazsek, Szabolcs, 2013. "Structural breaks in public finances in Central and Eastern European countries," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 45-60.
  103. Robert J. Sonora & Josip Tica, 2010. "Real Interest Parity in New Europe," EFZG Working Papers Series 1011, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Zagreb.
  104. Hakan Kum, 2012. "Are Fluctuations in Energy Consumption Transitory or Permanent? Evidence From a Panel of East Asia & Pacific Countries," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 2(3), pages 92-96.
  105. Zorica Mladenović & Kosta Josifidis & Slađana Srdić, 2013. "The Purchasing Power Parity in Emerging Europe: Empirical Results Based on Two-Break Analysis," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 60(2), pages 179-202, April.
  106. John W. Dawson & Mark C. Strazicich, 2006. "Time Series Tests of Income Convergence with Two Structural Breaks: An Update and Extension," Working Papers 06-01, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
  107. Herve Queneau & Amit Sen, 2009. "Further Evidence on the Dynamics of Unemployment by Gender," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(4), pages 3162-3176.
  108. Çetin, Tamer & Yasin Eryigit, Kadir, 2013. "The economic effects of government regulation: Evidence from the New York taxicab market," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 169-177.
  109. Cunado, J. & Perez de Gracia, F., 2006. "Real convergence in Africa in the second-half of the 20th century," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 153-167.
  110. Gomes, Fábio A. R. & Franchini, Douglas de S., 2008. "The Stationarity of Consumption–Income Ratios: Evidence from South American Countries," Insper Working Papers wpe_123, Insper Working Paper, Insper Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa.