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Demand for Differentiated Milk Products: Implications for Price Competition

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  • Elena Lopez

    ()
    (University of Alcalá)

  • Rigoberto A. Lopez

    ()
    (University of Connecticut)

Abstract

This article uses a discrete choice, random coefficients logit model for analyzing consumer behavior and retail price competition in the Boston fluid milk market. The problems of product dimensionality and consumer heterogeneity implied by imperfect substitution in markets with differentiated products were solved by applying the model of Berry, Levinhson and Pakes (1995). Empirical results show that private label milks have the highest markups in spite of lower prices, which may explain their rapid expansion, while low-fat and specialty milks such as organic and lactose-free are preferred by high income groups with no children.

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File URL: http://fmpc.uconn.edu/publications/rr/rr104.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy in its series Food Marketing Policy Center Research Reports with number 104.

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Length: 22 pages
Date of creation: Apr 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:zwi:fpcrep:104

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Related research

Keywords: Demand analysis; random coefficients model; milk; consumer behavior; retail pricing; markups; competition;

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References

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  1. Kim, Donghun, 2004. "Estimation of the Effects of New Brands on Incumbents' Profits and Consumer Welfare: The U.S. Processed Cheese Market Case," Research Reports 25192, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  2. Junko Kinoshita & Nobuhiro Suzuki & Harry M. Kaiser, 2002. "Explaining pricing conduct in a product-differentiated oligopolistic market: An empirical application of a price conjectural variations model," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 427-436.
  3. Chidmi, Benaissa & Lopez, Rigoberto A. & Cotterill, Ronald W., 2004. "Retail Oligopoly Power, Dairy Compact, And Boston Milk Prices," Food Marketing Policy Center Research Reports 083, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy.
  4. Benaissa Chidmi & Rigoberto A. Lopez, 2007. "Brand-Supermarket Demand for Breakfast Cereals and Retail Competition," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(2), pages 324-337.
  5. Aviv Nevo, 2000. "A Practitioner's Guide to Estimation of Random-Coefficients Logit Models of Demand," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 513-548, December.
  6. Basak Canan & Ronald W. Cotterill, 2006. "Strategic pricing in a differentiated product oligopoly model: fluid milk in Boston," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 35(1), pages 27-33, 07.
  7. Jerry HAUSMAN & Gregory LEONARD & J. Douglas ZONA, 1994. "Competitive Analysis with Differentiated Products," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 34, pages 159-180.
  8. Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2006. "Vertical relationships between manufacturers and retailers: inference with limited data," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt0z26d2v9, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
  9. Nevo, Aviv, 1998. "Measuring Market Power in the Ready-To-Eat Cereal Industry," Research Reports 25164, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  10. Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1980. "An Almost Ideal Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 312-26, June.
  11. Chidmi, Benaissa & Lopez, Rigoberto A., 2007. "AJAE Appendix: Brand-Supermarket Demand for Breakfast Cereals and Retail Competition," American Journal of Agricultural Economics Appendices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(2), May.
  12. Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-90, July.
  13. Ronald W. Cotterill & Pierre O. Samson, 2002. "Estimating a Brand-Level Demand System for American Cheese Products to Evaluate Unilateral and Coordinated Market Power Strategies," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(3), pages 817-823.
  14. Johnson, Stanley R. & Stonehouse, D. Peter & Hassan, Zuhair A., 1992. "Market Demand for Dairy Products," Staff General Research Papers 575, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  15. Lass, Daniel, 2005. "Asymmetric Response of Retail Milk Prices in the Northeast Revisited," Research Reports 149026, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  16. Steven T. Berry, 1994. "Estimating Discrete-Choice Models of Product Differentiation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 242-262, Summer.
  17. Daniel A. Lass, 2005. "Asymmetric response of retail milk prices in the northeast revisited," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(4), pages 493-508.
  18. Junko Kinoshita & Nobuhiro Suzuki & Tamotsu Kawamura & Yasuhito Watanabe & Harry M. Kaiser, 2001. "Estimating own and cross brand price elasticities, and price-cost margin ratios using store-level daily scanner data," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 515-525.
  19. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
  20. Rebecca Hellerstein, 2004. "Who Bears the Cost of a Change in the Exchange Rate?," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 589, Econometric Society.
  21. Eliza M. Mojduszka & Julie A. Caswell & J. Michael Harris, 2001. "Consumer choice of food products and the implications for price competition and government policy," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(1), pages 81-104.
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Cited by:
  1. Hovhannisyan, Vardges & Stiegert, Kyle W., 2011. "Vertical Channel Analysis of the U.S. Milk Market," 2011 Annual Meeting, July 24-26, 2011, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 103631, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

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