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Management Control and Innovative Activity

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  • Czarnitzki, Dirk
  • Kraft, Kornelius

Abstract

This paper discusses theoretically the different incentives of managers versus firm owners to invest in innovative activities. There are opposing effects concerning R&D intensity in the manager-controlled firm. Our study on the determinants of R&D intensity presents empirical results concerning this question. A sample of German firms with 3,978 observations is used and it turns out that the owner-led firms invest less into R&D than the managerial firms. With respect to the managerled firms, expenditures on R&D depend on the control exerted. If capital shares are widely dispersed and managers are thus only controlled a little by owners, they invest more into R&D. Owner-led firms and managers who are strongly controlled have a very similar R&D intensity. --

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research in its series ZEW Discussion Papers with number 00-68.

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Date of creation: 2000
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:zewdip:5350

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Keywords: Innovative Activity; Managerial versus Owner-led Firms; Incentives; Tobit Regression;

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References

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  1. Holmstrom, Bengt, 1989. "Agency costs and innovation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 305-327, December.
  2. Leech, D. & Leahy, J., 1989. "Ownership Structure, Control Type Classifications And The Performance Of Large British Companies," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 345, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  3. Kaplan, Steven N, 1994. "Top Executive Rewards and Firm Performance: A Comparison of Japan and the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(3), pages 510-46, June.
  4. Kraft, Kornelius & Niederprum, Antonia, 1999. "Determinants of management compensation with risk-averse agents and dispersed ownership of the firm," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 17-27, September.
  5. Robert Gibbons & Kevin J. Murphy, 1990. "Relative performance evaluation for chief executive officers," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 43(3), pages 30-51, February.
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  7. Hart, Oliver & Moore, John, 1995. "Debt and Seniority: An Analysis of the Role of Hard Claims in Constraining Management," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 567-85, June.
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  9. Garen, John E, 1994. "Executive Compensation and Principal-Agent Theory," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(6), pages 1175-99, December.
  10. Acs, Zoltan J & Audretsch, David B, 1988. "Innovation in Large and Small Firms: An Empirical Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 678-90, September.
  11. Fershtman, Chaim & Judd, Kenneth L, 1987. "Equilibrium Incentives in Oligopoly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 927-40, December.
  12. Schmidt, Klaus M, 1997. "Managerial Incentives and Product Market Competition," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(2), pages 191-213, April.
  13. Mathias Dewatripont & Jean Tirole, 1994. "A theory of debt and equity: diversity of securities and manager-shareholder congruence," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9593, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  14. Weisbach, Michael S., 1988. "Outside directors and CEO turnover," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 431-460, January.
  15. Warner, Jerold B. & Watts, Ross L. & Wruck, Karen H., 1988. "Stock prices and top management changes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 461-492, January.
  16. Holmstrom, Bengt & Milgrom, Paul, 1987. "Aggregation and Linearity in the Provision of Intertemporal Incentives," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 303-28, March.
  17. Gilson, Stuart C., 1989. "Management turnover and financial distress," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 241-262, December.
  18. Fagerberg, Jan, 1987. "A technology gap approach to why growth rates differ," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(2-4), pages 87-99, August.
  19. Mehran, Hamid, 1995. "Executive compensation structure, ownership, and firm performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 163-184, June.
  20. Schmidt, Klaus M., 1997. "Managerial Incentives and Product Market Competition," Munich Reprints in Economics 19772, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Hottenrott, Hanna & Peters, Bettina, 2009. "Innovative capability and financing constraints for innovation: More money, more innovation?," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-081, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  2. Caggese, Andrea, 2012. "Entrepreneurial risk, investment, and innovation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(2), pages 287-307.
  3. Dirk Czarnitzki & Hanna Hottenrott, 2011. "R&D investment and financing constraints of small and medium-sized firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 65-83, January.
  4. Volker Zimmermann, 2003. "Innovationsaktivitäten von kmU im verarbeitenden Gewerbe: Was zeichnet Imitatoren und originäre Innovatoren aus?," ZEW Discussion Papers 03-37, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  5. Bastiaan M. Overvest & Jasper Veldman, 2008. "Managerial incentives for process innovation," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(7), pages 539-545.
  6. Ghosh, Saibal, 2006. "R&D in Indian public enterprises: An assessment," MPRA Paper 32073, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Jirjahn, Uwe & Kraft, Kornelius, 2006. "Do Spillovers Stimulate Incremental or Drastic Product Innovations? Hypotheses and Evidence from German Establishment Data," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-23, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  8. Kraft, Kornelius & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2004. "On the Profitability of Innovative Assets," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-38, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  9. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Kraft, Kornelius, 2004. "Capital Control, Debt Financing and Innovative Activity," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-75, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  10. H. T. Tran & E. Santarelli, 2013. "Revisiting Italian Emigration Before the Great War: A Test of the Standard Economic Model," Working Papers wp909, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  11. Väänänen, Lotta, 2003. "Agency Costs and R&D: Evidence from Finnish SMEs," Discussion Papers 859, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
  12. Sellami Basma, 2008. "Gouvernement D'Entreprise Et Investissement En R&D : Une Etude Sur Le Sbf 250," Post-Print halshs-00525983, HAL.
  13. Joel Stiebale & Frank Reize, 2008. "The Impact of FDI on Innovation in Target Firms," Ruhr Economic Papers 0050, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.

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