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Wie entstehen neue Innovationsfelder? Vergleich der Formierungs- und Formungsprozesse in der Biotechnologie und Elektromobilität

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  • Canzler, Weert
  • Wentland, Alexander
  • Simon, Dagmar
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    Abstract

    Technologische Neuerungen versprechen die Lösung drängender technisch-sozialer Probleme, aber auch wirtschaftliches Wachstum und sozialen Wohlstand in den zunehmend wissensgetriebenen Ökonomien der OECD-Welt. Die beiden Fälle Biotechnologie (bzw. Gentechnik) und Elektromobilität illustrieren exemplarisch, wie staatliche, wirtschaftliche und akademische Akteure dazu beitragen, dass neue Innovationsfelder entstehen und Bestand haben. Hierzu bedarf es robuster Netzwerke und Austauschbeziehungen, insbesondere zwischen Grundlagenforschung und Anwendung, aber auch zwischen Forschern aus verschiedenen akademischen Disziplinen, Ingenieuren, Managern und politischen Entscheidungsträgern. Derartige Konstellationen entstehen nicht über Nacht. Sie sind das Produkt von Aushandlungsprozessen, strategischen Weichenstellungen und Demarkationskämpfen an den Grenzen etablierter Branchen und Disziplinen, in der Regel begleitet von politischen Koordinations- und Regulierungsversuchen. Die Entstehung einer neuen Technik geht zudem oft einher mit bestimmten Nutzen- und Nutzervorstellungen, die ihre Genese mitbestimmen. Um auf diese Ebene analytisch vordringen zu können, müssen gängige Innovationsmodelle jedoch kulturalistisch erweitert werden. In diesem Discussion Paper beabsichtigen wir, analytische Schneisen für einen umfassenderen empirischen Vergleich emergenter Innovationsfelder zu schlagen. Eine solche Systematisierung könnte helfen, über die Einzelfalldarstellung hinaus Aussagen zu den Möglichkeiten und Grenzen von strukturorientierter Innovationspolitik zu treffen. Biotechnologie und Elektromobilität eignen sich als idealtypische Ausprägungen der Triple-Helix aus Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft und Staat (Etzkowitz/Leydesdorff 2000), wie sich zeigen wird, trotz ihrer Verschiedenheit in besonderem Maße für diese Gegenüberstellung. -- Technological innovations promise solutions to urgent socio-material issues as well as growth and welfare in the increasingly knowledge-driven economies of the OECD countries. In this discussion paper, we would like to show how governmental, economic, and academic actors contribute to the creation and establishing of new fields of innovation. To this end, we will compare two prominent cases in current innovation policy: biotechnology (specifically, genetic engineering) and the electric vehicle network (EVN). Nascent areas of research and development require robust organizational networks and a high degree of interconnectedness in order to be successful. This is especially true for the alliance between basic science and its application, but also between various scientific disciplines, engineers, managers, and decision makers in politics. Such networks do not emerge overnight. They are the product of negotiations, strategic positioning, and demarcation work at the boundaries of established scientific disciplines and industrial sectors. Political actors seek to actively regulate and organize emerging fields as well. We are going to argue that the way in which participants imagine the uses and users of a certain technology has a strong impact on the shape it is going to take. In order to grasp this cultural dimension, the prevalent understanding of the innovation process must be extended. At this point, we cannot present final conclusions, since there is still a shortage of empirical data. We are, however, proposing several analytical trajectories based on the available literature as well as our own exploratory research on the subject. Both cases - biotechnology and the EVN - are being considered as perfect examples of the so-called triple helix, which is how some scholars of innovation refer to the close interdependencies of science, business, and politics (Etzkowitz/Leydesdorff 2000). The comparison of the two cases, both in and beyond this discussion paper, might offer general insights into the formation of new fields of innovation.

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    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Group Science Policy Studies with number SP III 2011-601.

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    Date of creation: 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbsps:spiii2011601

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    1. Stuart, Toby E. & Ozdemir, Salih Zeki & Ding, Waverly W., 2007. "Vertical alliance networks: The case of university-biotechnology-pharmaceutical alliance chains," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 477-498, May.
    2. Rosenberg,Nathan, 1994. "Exploring the Black Box," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521452700.
    3. Jasanoff, Sheila, 1985. "Technological innovation in a corporatist state: The case of biotechnology in the Federal Republic of Germany," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 23-38, February.
    4. Callon, M., 1980. "The state and technical innovation: a case study of the electrical vehicle in France," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 358-376, October.
    5. Giesecke, Susanne, 2000. "The contrasting roles of government in the development of biotechnology industry in the US and Germany," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 205-223, February.
    6. Saxenian, AnnaLee, 1991. "The origins and dynamics of production networks in Silicon Valley," Research Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 423-437, October.
    7. Rosenberg,Nathan, 1994. "Exploring the Black Box," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521459556.
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