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Zugang zu Ausbildung: Eine historisch vergleichende Perspektive auf den segmentierten Ausbildungsmarkt in (West-)Deutschland

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  • Protsch, Paula
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    Abstract

    Mit Blick auf die Rekrutierungsseite des Ausbildungsmarktes wird in diesem Beitrag gefragt, ob verringerte Ausbildungschancen von Hauptschülern in Deutschland infolge der Bildungsexpansion durch Upskilling-Prozesse der beruflichen Tätigkeiten (d.h. durch höhere Anforderungen der Berufsinhalte) und/oder durch Upgrading-Prozesse der rechtlichen oder praktizierten schulischen Zugangsvoraussetzungen (d.h. eine qualifikatorische Aufwertung) mit verursacht werden. In einem ersten Schritt wird der Wandel des bildungsgruppenspezifischen Zugangs zu Ausbildung im Allgemeinen und zu bestimmten Berufssegmenten im Zeitraum von 1954 bis 2002 auf Basis der Lebensverlaufsstudie (Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung) und der Befragung Arbeiten und Lernen im Wandel (ALWA) (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung - IAB) analysiert. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass abnehmende Ausbildungschancen von Schulabgängern mit geringer Schulbildung nicht allein auf Verdrängungsprozesse zurückzuführen sind, die sich bei einer ausgeglichenen Angebots- und Nachfragerelation wieder beheben würden. Eine historisch vergleichende qualitative Inhaltsanalyse der Ausbildungsordnungen ausgewählter dualer Ausbildungsberufe zeigt ergänzend, dass insbesondere die jüngste der betrachteten Schulabgangskohorten (1990-2002) in den meisten Berufssegmenten mit einem dauerhaften Upgrading der qualifikatorischen Zugangsvoraussetzungen konfrontiert wurde, das nicht immer mit tatsächlichen Upskilling-Prozessen der kognitiven beruflichen Anforderungen einhergegangen ist. -- By focussing on the recruitment side of the training market, this paper asks whether the reduced training chances of lower educated school leavers in Germany, as a consequence of the educational expansion, are due to upskilling processes of occupational demands and/or upgrading processes of official or informal qualification requirements for training. In a first step, changes regarding (educational) group specific access to training in general, and to specific occupational segments are analyzed for the period of 1954 to 2002 employing the German Life History Study (Max-Planck-Institute for Human Development) and the Working and Learning in a Changing World (ALWA) dataset (Institute for Employment Research - IAB). The results indicate that decreasing training opportunities of the lower educated school leavers are not the outcome of simple displacement processes which would disappear once the supply and demand situation have balanced out. In addition, a qualitative content analysis of changes in the federal training regulations (including curricula outlines) for selected occupations of the dual system shows that especially the youngest school leaving cohort (1990-2002) faced an upgrading of qualification requirements in most occupational segments which was not always accompanied by an upskilling of the cognitive occupational demands.

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    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Skill Formation and Labor Markets with number SP I 2011-502.

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    Date of creation: 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbslm:spi2011502

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