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Persönliche Merkmale von Führungspersonal als Politikdeterminante: Die Europäische Kommission im Wandel der Zeit

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  • Hartlapp, Miriam
  • Lorenz, Yann
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    Abstract

    Persönliche Merkmale von Mitgliedern der Organisationseliten, wie etwa Beruf, Nationalität oder Parteizugehörigkeit, sind wichtige Bausteine, um politische Entscheidungen zu erklären. Sie rücken zusehends in den Fokus systematischer Analysen europäischer Politik. Die Europäische Kommission ist in vielerlei Hinsicht mit nationalen Verwaltungen vergleichbar. Einer der wohl bedeutendsten Unterschiede ist jedoch, dass ihre personelle Zusammensetzung im Gegensatz zu nationalen Administrationen sehr heterogen ist. So unterscheiden sich die Führungspersonen der Kommission untereinander erheblich in parteipolitischer und beruflicher Hinsicht sowie in ihrer nationalen Herkunft. Eine systematische Analyse dieser Varianzen erscheint besonders relevant, wo wir annehmen, dass sie zu unterschiedlichen Herangehensweisen und Bewertungen politischer Prozesse führen. Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über den Forschungsstand und überprüft die zentralen Thesen anhand einer neuen Datenbank zur Europäischen Kommission. Die Datenbank ist innovativ, weil sie, anders als existierende Arbeiten, Daten über Kommissionsmitglieder seit der Gründung im Jahr 1958 bis zum Jahr 2010 umfasst und nicht nur Kommissare, sondern auch Generaldirektoren einbezieht. Und sie erlaubt erstmals einen Zusammenhang zwischen der Organisationsstruktur der Kommission und den persönlichen Merkmalen ihrer Mitglieder herzustellen. Auf dieser Basis lässt sich zeigen, dass es sich bei der Kommission um ein changing kind of animal handelt, das anderen Verwaltungsstrukturen im EU-Mehrebenensystem in vielerlei Hinsicht zunehmend ähnelt, aber auch, wo es sich von ihnen absetzt. -- Personal characteristics of organizational elites, such as their socialisation, prior employment or party membership are important factors in explaining political decision making. Studies on European politics increasingly provide more systematic analyses of such factors. The European Commission is in many respects comparable to national administrations. However, a central differences is that its political staff is much more. Commission personnel differs substantially not only in nationality, but also in party political orientation and prior professional affiliation. A systematic analysis of these features becomes relevant where we assume that related variance results in different approaches to and judgements in political processes. The paper at hand summarizes the state of the art on personal characteristics of organizational elites in the EU political system and tests central hypotheses on the basis of a newly established and comprehensive data base on the European Commission. The novelty of the data base that is covers features of the Commission's political staff since its founding days in 1958 until today 2010, not only from Commissioners, but also from Director Generals. And it allows for the first time to connect the organisational structure of the European Commission to personnel characteristics of its staff. On this basis we can conclude that the Commission is a changing kind of animal that increasingly resembles national administrations in many respects, but continues to differ on others.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Schumpeter Junior Research Group Position Formation in the EU Commission with number SP IV 2012-501.

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    Date of creation: 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbpfe:spiv2012501

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    References

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    1. Jonas Tallberg, 2008. "Bargaining Power in the European Council," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46, pages 685-708, 06.
    2. Michelmann, Hans J., 1978. "Multinational staffing and organizational functioning in the Commission of the European Communities," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(02), pages 477-496, March.
    3. Miriam Hartlapp & Julia Metz and Christian Rauh, 2010. "The agenda set by the EU Commission: the result of balanced or biased aggregation of positions?," Europe in Question Discussion Paper Series of the London School of Economics (LEQs) 1, London School of Economics / European Institute.
    4. Hooghe, Liesbet, 2005. "Several Roads Lead to International Norms, but Few Via International Socialization: A Case Study of the European Commission," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 59(04), pages 861-898, October.
    5. Abdul Ghafar Noury & Simon Hix & Gérard Roland, 2006. "Dimensions of politics in the European Parliament," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/7750, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    6. Morten Egeberg & Andreas Heskestad, 2010. "The Denationalization of "Cabinets" in the European Commission," Journal of Common Market Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48, pages 775-786, 09.
    7. Miriam Hartlapp & Julia Metz & Christian Rauh, 2010. "The agenda set by the EU Commission: the result of balanced or biased aggregation of positions?," LEQS – LSE 'Europe in Question' Discussion Paper Series 21, European Institute, LSE.
    8. Holger Döring, 2007. "The Composition of the College of Commissioners," European Union Politics, , vol. 8(2), pages 207-228, June.
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