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Die Marktprämie im EEG 2012: Ein sinnvoller Beitrag zur Markt- und Systemintegration erneuerbarer Energien?

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  • Gawel, Erik
  • Purkus, Alexandra
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    Abstract

    Mit der steigenden Bedeutung erneuerbarer Energien im Stromsektor stellt sich zunehmend die Herausforderung ihrer Marktintegration, d. h. die Einbeziehung in den Steuerungs- und Ver-gütungsmechanismus des Strommarktes, sowie ihrer Systemintegration, d. h. die stärkere Einbindung in die Netzstabilisierung. Für eine effiziente und versorgungssichere Transformation des Energie-systems ist es notwendig, die Erzeugung von Strom aus Erneuerbaren verstärkt an kurz- wie langfristigen Marksignalen auszurichten. Das EEG 2012 führte hierzu als zentrales Instrument das Marktprämienmodell ein, um Anlagenbetreiber stärker an den Markt heranzuführen, sowie um Anreize für eine bedarfsgerechtere Stromproduktion zu setzen. Bereits ein halbes Jahr nach der Einführung steht die Marktprämie jedoch in der Kritik, hohe Zusatzkosten ohne entsprechenden Mehrwert zu schaffen. Der vorliegende Artikel wertet erste empirische Erfahrungen aus und untersucht auf dieser Grundlage, inwieweit das Marktprämienmodell in seiner aktuellen Ausgestaltung zur Marktintegration und/oder zur Systemintegration beiträgt, und ob es grundsätzlich geeignet scheint, diese Ziele zu erreichen (Effektivität). Zudem wird diskutiert, welche Effizienzgewinne sich realisieren lassen, und welche Zusatzkosten der Integrationsadministrierung dabei entstehen (Effizienz). Während die Marktintegration i. e. S. (Unterwerfung unter das allgemeine Marktpreis-risiko) gar nicht Ziel des Marktprämienmodells ist, konnte die Teilnahme an der Direktvermarktung signifikant gesteigert werden. Allerdings ergeben sich hohe Zusatzkosten und Mitnahmeeffekte, und der gesamtwirtschaftliche Nutzen einer graduellen Heranführung an den Markt ist zweifelhaft. Eine verbesserte Systemintegration wird über das Instrument zwar angesteuert, doch reichen die gesetzten Anreize für eine signifikante Flexibilisierung der Einspeisung vor allem im Fall fluktuierender Erneuerbarer nicht aus. Eine Fortführung des Modells in seiner jetzigen Ausgestaltung erscheint daher nicht empfehlenswert. Abschließend wird ein Ausblick auf mögliche Alternativlösungen gegeben. -- With the share of renewable energies within the electricty sector rising, improving their market integration (i. e. inclusion in the steering and remuneration processes of the electricity market) and system integration (i. e. enhanced responsibility for grid stability) is of increasing importance. To transform the energy system efficiently while ensuring security of supply, it is necessary to increase the alignment of renewable electricity production with short- and long-term market signals. The German Renewable Energy Sources Act 2012 introduced the market premium to provide market experience to renewable plant operators and incentives for demand-oriented electricity production. Half a year after its introduction, the instrument is already being criticised as ineffective and expensive. Building on early experiences, this article examines whether the market premium in its current design improves market and/or system integration, and if it seems suitable in principle to contribute to these aims (effectiveness). Also, potential efficiency gains and additional costs of administering integration are discussed (efficiency). While market integration in a strict sense (i. e. exposing renewables to price risks) is not the purpose of the market premium, it has successfully increased participation in direct marketing. However, additional costs and windfall profits are high, and the benefits of gradually leading plant operators towards the market are questionable. Incentives for demand-oriented electricity production are established, but they prove insufficient particularly in the case of intermittent renewable energy sources. A continuation of the instrument in its current form therefore does not seem recommendable. To conclude, potential alternative solutions are presented.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Division of Social Sciences (ÖKUS) in its series UFZ Discussion Papers with number 12/2012.

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    Date of creation: 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:ufzdps:122012

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    Keywords: EEG; Effizienz; Erneuerbare Energien; Marktintegration; Marktprämie; Netzstabilität; Efficiency; Grid Stability; Market Integration; Market Premium; Renewable Energies; Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG);

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    1. Peter Cramton & Axel Ockenfels, 2012. "Economics and Design of Capacity Markets for the Power Sector," Papers of Peter Cramton 12cocap, University of Maryland, Department of Economics - Peter Cramton, revised 2012.
    2. Brandstätt, Christine & Brunekreeft, Gert & Jahnke, Katy, 2011. "How to deal with negative power price spikes?--Flexible voluntary curtailment agreements for large-scale integration of wind," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3732-3740, June.
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