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Perspektiven einer kollisionsrechtlichen Verfassung transnationaler Märkte

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  • Joerges, Christian
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    Abstract

    'Konstitutionalisierung' ist zum Schlüsselbegriff der Debatten um die Legitimität des Regierens in der Europäischen Union und im internationalen System geworden. Dieser Essay plädiert für eine Rückbesinnung auf eine in diesen Diskussionen weithin vernachlässigte Disziplin. Es geht ihm dabei aber keineswegs um dominierende Konzeptionen des kontinentaleuropäischen Internationalen Privatrechts oder des anglo-amerikanischen Kollisionsrechts. Das Kollisionsrecht neuen Typs, für das er eintritt, befasst sich nämlich nicht mit der Entscheidung zwischen den verschiedenen Rechtsordnungen, zu denen eine Fallkonstellation Verbindungen aufweist. Es geht in diesem neuen 'Kollisionenrecht' vielmehr um den Umgang mit externen Effekten, den binnenstaatlich legitimierten Gesetzen und Entscheidungen in anderen Rechtssystemen, deren betroffene Bürger sich nicht, wie es insbesondere in deliberativen Demokratietheorien gefordert wird, als deren Autoren verstehen können. Es ist der Beruf des Europarechts, das hierfür eine Vielfalt von Möglichkeiten bietet, diese Demokratiedefizite der Mitgliedstaaten der EU zu kompensieren und auf dieses Potential dessen konstitutionelle Dignität (seine supranationalen Geltungsansprüche) zu gründen. Ein solches Kollisionsrechts neuen Typs lässt sich, wenngleich mit weniger weitreichenden Ansprüchen auch für das internationale System entwickeln. Diese Perspektiven werden an Beispielen aus dem WTO-Recht entwickelt. Der kollisionsrechtliche Ansatz wird in drei Dimensionen weiter ausdifferenziert. Mit dieser Binnendifferenzierung reagiert der Ansatz auf Transformationen des Rechts, die sich auf allen Ebenen des Regierens vollzogen haben, zunächst in der Entfaltung regulativer Politiken, sodann in der Wende zum Regieren. In seiner 'zweiten Dimension' geht es dem kollisionsrechtlichen Ansatz um eine Konstitutionalisierung transnationaler Kooperationsformen, in denen administrative Akteure dominieren, in seiner 'dritten Dimension' um die Anerkennung bzw. Supervision von kooperativen Arrangements nicht-gouvernementaler Akteure und deren para-legaler Regime. -- 'Constitutionalisation' is the key concept in the search for legitimate governance in the European Union and in the international system. This paper suggests revitalising of a discipline which is widely neglected in European law and international law scholarship. It does not, however, recommend a return to the conflict of laws (private international law) in the traditional sense. The new type of conflicts law which it advocates is not concerned with selecting the proper legal system in cases with connections to various jurisdictions. This conflicts law is conceptualised as a response to the increasing inter-dependence of formerly more autonomous legal orders and to the democracy failure of constitutional states which result from the external effects of their laws and legal decisions on foreign systems and on their citizens who cannot understand themselves as their authors. European law has a vocation and many means both to compensate for the democracy failures of member states and to build upon this potential in its constitutionalisation. The conflicts law approach also provides new, albeit more restrained, perspectives at international level. WTO law is used to explored and document its constitutional perspectives. The conflicts law approach is differentiated into three dimensions. With this differentiated fabric, the approach responds to transformation processes which have affected contemporary law at all levels of governance after the rise of regulatory politics and the turn to governance. In its second dimension, conflicts law seeks to constitutionalise co-operative problem-solving under the lead of administrative bodies, while its third dimensions is concerned with both the recognition and the supervision of transnational governance arrangements and para-legal regimes.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by University of Bremen, Collaborative Research Center 597: Transformations of the State in its series TranState Working Papers with number 146.

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    Date of creation: 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:sfb597:146

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