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Liberalisierungspolitik: Eine Bestandsaufnahme von zweieinhalb Dekaden marktschaffender Politik in entwickelten Industrieländern

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  • Höpner, Martin
  • Petring, Alexander
  • Seikel, Daniel
  • Werner, Benjamin
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    Abstract

    Liberalisierungspolitik bezeichnet die politisch herbeigeführte und politisch legitimierte Delegation von Allokations- und Distributionsentscheidungen an Märkte und zielt auf Durchsetzung der Prinzipien der Eigenverantwortung, der dezentralen Entscheidungsfindung und der Konkurrenz. Viele politökonomische Klassiker vertraten die Ansicht, dem Kapitalismus sei ein anhaltender Trend der Marktbeseitigung eigen, was den Eintritt in eine längere, mehrere Politikbereiche umfassende Phase politischer Marktschaffung unwahrscheinlich, wenn nicht gar unmöglich erscheinen ließ. Anhand von ländervergleichenden, zeitvarianten Indikatoren zu fünf Wirtschafts- und sozialpolitischen Sphären weisen wir in diesem Papier nach, dass die entwickelten Industriestaaten spätestens in den Achtzigerjahren in eine konvergente liberalisierungspolitische Phase eintraten, in der sie nicht nur parallele Liberalisierungspolitik betrieben, sondern sich hinsichtlich ihrer öffentlichen Interventionsniveaus auch spürbar ähnlicher wurden. Das zeigen wir anhand von Daten zu 21 OECD-Ländern im Zeitraum zwischen 1980 und 2005. Im Ergebnis unterscheiden wir zwei Dimensionen der Liberalisierungspolitik: regulatorische Liberalisierung und distributive Liberalisierung. Die empirischen Betrachtungen münden in eine Diskussion der empirischen, theoretischen und methodischen Implikationen von Konvergenz. -- Liberalization policy is defined as the politically implemented and politically legitimized delegation of allocation and distribution decisions to markets. It aims at promoting the principles of individual responsibility, decentralized decision-making and competition. Since many of the classic authors of political economy thought that a sustained trend of eliminating markets was inherent to capitalism, a protracted phase of liberalization encompassing several policy fields was considered unlikely and maybe even impossible. Using comparative, time-variant indicators from five economic and social policy fields, we show that, by the 1980s at the latest, the developed industrialized countries entered such a liberalization phase in which they not only pursued similar policies but witnessed increasingly converging levels of public intervention into markets as well. Our indicators encompass 21 OECD countries between 1980 and 2005. We distinguish two dimensions of liberalization policies: regulatory liberalization and distributive liberalization. We conclude by discussing the empirical, theoretical and methodological implications of convergence.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies in its series MPIfG Discussion Paper with number 09/7.

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    Date of creation: 2009
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:mpifgd:097

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