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Der unitarische Bundesstaat in Deutschland: Pfadabhängigkeit und Wandel


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  • Lehmbruch, Gerhard
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    Die Eigenart des deutschen Föderalismus erschließt sich in einer historischen Analyse der bundesstaatlichen Institutionen. Dabei wird ein hohes Maß an Pfadabhängigkeit sichtbar, die ihre Persistenz über einen langen Zeitraum hinweg der Ko-Evolution von politisch-kulturellen Orientierungen (Unitarismus) und institutionellen Arrangements verdankte. Die institutionellen Arrangements entfalteten sich sukzessive über mehrere Entwicklungssequenzen hinweg, die in einer Abfolge komplementärer institutioneller Weichenstellungen (1849, 1867/1871, 1919, 1945-1949) ein System von zunehmender, überaus veränderungsresistenter Komplexität hervorbrachten. Die Langfristanalyse führt zu dem Schluss, dass der institutionelle Kern des komplex verflochtenen unitarischen Bundesstaates, wie das Ergebnis dieses Entwicklungspfades genannt worden ist, weiterhin eine durch Pfadabhängigkeit bedingte Resistenz gegen institutional engineering aufweist. Die unitarischen politisch-kulturellen Orientierungen hingegen, die seit der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts zur Selbstreproduktion dieses Entwicklungspfades beitrugen und deren Bezugsrahmen der Nationalstaat war, werden in zunehmendem Maße obsolet. Dies könnte Veränderungsspielräume eröffnen, die sich am Dezentralisierungsparadigma orientieren. -- The characteristic traits of German federalism are best explored in a historical analysis of the federal institutions. These exhibit a high degree of path-dependence that is due to the co-evolution of cultural orientations (unitarism) and of the institutional arrangements. The institutional arrangements were shaped in successive sequences of development (1849, 1867/71, 1919, 1945-49) which generated, due to complementary critical junctures, a system of increasing complexity that was more and more resistant to change. The longitudinal analysis shows that the institutional core of German 'unitary federalism' (as it has often been called) with its complex architecture withstands attempts at institutional engineering. However, the 'unitary' cultural orientations whose frame of reference was the nation state and which have contributed to the self-reproduction of this development path are now increasingly becoming obsolete. This might open windows of opportunity for greater decentralization.

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    Paper provided by Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies in its series MPIfG Discussion Paper with number 02/2.

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    Date of creation: 2002
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:mpifgd:022

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    1. Breton, Albert, 1970. "Public Goods and the Stability of Federalism," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(4), pages 882-902.
    2. David, Paul A, 1985. "Clio and the Economics of QWERTY," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 332-37, May.
    3. Hall, Peter A. & Taylor, Rosemary C. R., 1996. "Political science and the three new institutionalisms," MPIfG Discussion Paper 96/6, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
    4. Denzau, Arthur T & North, Douglass C, 1994. "Shared Mental Models: Ideologies and Institutions," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1), pages 3-31.
    5. Charles M. Tiebout, 1956. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 416.
    6. Andrea Bassanini & Giovanni Dosi, 1999. "When and How Chance and Human Will Can Twist the Arms of Clio," LEM Papers Series 1999/05, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    7. Deeg, Richard, 2001. "Institutional change and the uses and limits of path dependency: The case of German finance," MPIfG Discussion Paper 01/6, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
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    Cited by:
    1. Berthold, Norbert & Fricke, Holger, 2003. "Deutschland im Herbst 2003 - blockierter Standortwettbewerb der Bundesländer," Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Beiträge 69, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Lehrstuhl für Volkswirtschaftslehre, insbes. Wirtschaftsordnung und Sozialpolitik.
    2. Libman, Alexander Mikhailovich, 2009. "Эндогенные Границы И Распределение Власти В Федерациях И Международных Сообществах
      ," MPRA Paper 16473, University Library of Munich, Germany.


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