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Wandel oder Kontinuität: Ein kritischer Beitrag zur Diskussion um handelsrestriktive Umweltmaßnahmen im Rahmen der WTO

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  • Doerr, Eva Maria
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    Abstract

    Das internationale Freihandelsregime wurde in den vergangenen Jahren von wenigen Themen so stark geprägt, wie von seinem Verhältnis zum Umweltrecht. Der vorliegende Beitrag konzeptualisiert und problematisiert den im wissenschaftlichen Diskurs häufig verkürzt dargestellten Zielkonflikt zwischen Handel und Umwelt. Die Annahme, mit der strukturellen Änderung des Freihandelsregimes 1994 habe sich seine Regelsetzung zugunsten restriktiverer Umweltstandards entwickelt, wird anhand eines Vergleiches der beiden WTO-Streitschlichtungsverfahren, US-Tuna und US-Shrimp, bewiesen. Die Ursachen dieser Entwicklung gilt es jedoch kritisch zu hinterfragen. Ein detaillierter Blick auf beide Streitfälle entkräftet supra-national sowie sozialkonstruktivistisch argumentierende Erklärungsmodelle, die die Schlussfolgerung zu-lassen, es habe ein institutioneller bzw. normativer Wandel hin zu einem Greening of the GATT stattgefunden. Stattdessen, so die These, eignet sich vielmehr ein intergouvernementaler Erklärungsansatz, der Entscheidungen der WTO vor dem Hintergrund der rationalen Interessen ihrer Mitgliedsstaaten reflektiert. Um künftig effektiven und nachhaltigen Umweltschutz zu garantieren, bedarf es einer substantiellen Neuorientierung staatlicher Präferenzen, die bisher nicht stattgefunden hat. -- Few topics have influenced the international free-trade regime in recent years as much as its relation to environmental legislation. This working paper conceptualizes and discusses the conflict of objectives be-tween trade and environment often oversimplified in academic discourse. It argues that the structural changes of the free-trade regime in 1994 have led to a regulation towards more restrictive environmental standards based on a comparison of two dispute settlement procedures, US Tuna and US Shrimp. At this juncture, however, it is important to look more critically at the causes of this development. A detailed analysis of both disputes refutes explanatory models which argue from a supranational as well as a social-constructivist perspective and conclude that an institutional or normative change towards a Greening of the GATT has taken place. This paper argues that an intergovernmental perspective which analyses the decisions of the WTO in light of the rational interests of its member states is a more reasoned approach. In order to guarantee effective and sustainable environmental protection in the future, there must be a substantial reorientation of national preferences, which up until now has not occurred.

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    Paper provided by Free University Berlin, Center for International Political Economy in its series PIPE - Papers on International Political Economy with number 12/2012.

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    Date of creation: 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:fubipe:122012

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    Web page: http://www.polsoz.fu-berlin.de/polwiss/forschung/oekonomie/ipoe/index.html

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    1. Olav Schram stokke, 2004. "Trade Measures and Climate Compliance: Institutional Interplay Between WTO and the Marrakesh Accords," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 4(4), pages 339-357, December.
    2. Jackson, J.H., 1992. "World Trade Rules and Environmental Policies: Congruence or Conflict?," Working Papers, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan 317, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
    3. Elizabeth R. DeSombre & J. Samuel Barkin, 2002. "Turtles and Trade: The WTO's Acceptance of Environmental Trade Restrictions," Global Environmental Politics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 2(1), pages 12-18, 02.
    4. Fischer, Carolyn & Hoffmann, Sandra & Yoshino , Yutaka, 2002. "Multilateral Trade Agreements and Market-Based Environmental Policies," Discussion Papers, Resources For the Future dp-02-28, Resources For the Future.
    5. Putnam, Robert D., 1988. "Diplomacy and domestic politics: the logic of two-level games," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(03), pages 427-460, June.
    6. Steve Charnovitz, 2007. "The WTO's Environmental Progress," Journal of International Economic Law, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(3), pages 685-706, September.
    7. repec:fth:michin:317 is not listed on IDEAS
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